• • Shannon M. Suldo and E.

Zora Raboteg-Saric and Marija Sakic (2013) in their research titles,
‘Relations of Parenting Styles and Friendship Quality to Self-Esteem, Life
Satisfaction and Happiness in Adolescents’ examined the effects of mother’s and
father’s perceived parenting style and friendship quality on several indicators
of adolescents’ well-being. The results showed that the perceived parenting
style of both parents as well as the quality of friendship had significant
effects on adolescents well-being, while the interaction effects of friendship
quality and either parents’ parenting style were not significant.


Roselind Lieb, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Michael Hofler et al., (2000) in
the study, ‘Parental Psychopathology, Parenting Styles, and the Risk of Social
Phobia in Offspring: A Prospective-Longitudinal Community Study’ examined the
associations between DSM-IV social phobia and parental
psychopathology, parenting style, and characteristics of family functioning in
a representative community sample of adolescents. The result of the study
suggest that parental psychopathology, particularly social phobia and
depression, and perceived parenting style (overprotection and rejection) are
both associated with the development of social phobia in youth.

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Gallander Wintre and Mordechai Yaffe (2000), in their reasearch
study, ‘First-Year
Students’ Adjustment to University Life as a Function of Relationships with
Parents’ investigated the contributions that perceived parenting style, current
relationships with parents, and psychological well-being variables make toward
perceived overall adjustment to university, from both socio/emotional
adaptation perspectives and actual academic achievement. Results indicated
that mutual reciprocity and discussion with parents, as well as the
psychological well-being variables, have direct links to adjustment to
university. There was an indirect, positive relationship between authoritative
parenting and adaptation variables. Furthermore, the predictor variables
differed by both gender and outcome measures.


Shannon M. Suldo and E. Scott Huebner
(2004), in ‘The Role of Life Satisfaction in the Relationship Between
Authoritative Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Problem Behaviour’
 examined the environmental factors associated with adolescents’ life
satisfaction and has revealed that familial variables (e.g., parent-child
conflict, family structure) are crucial correlates. The purpose of their study
was to identify particular dimensions of authoritative parenting that are
related to Life satisfaction during early, middle, and late adolescence.
Results indicated statistically that there is a significant relationship
between each authoritative parenting dimension and adolescent Life



A. Furnham and H. Cheng (2000)
in their study titled, ‘Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and
happiness’, investigated to what extent recalled parental rearing styles
(authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion,
neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness
in a normal, non-clinical, population of young people in their late teens and
early 20s. The study concluded that Self-esteem was both a direct and a
moderator variable for young people’s self-reported happiness. Maternal
authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and
maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable
discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly
beneficial in enhancing the off-springs’ self-esteem.


Cohen M,
Mansoor D, Gagin R and Lorber A (2008) designed their research tittled ‘Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress
in adolescents with heart disease  to assess the relationships between perceived
parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with
heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged
12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched
adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood
and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived
acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but
similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Statistical analyses
showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed
mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental
acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem,
whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the
control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was
associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved
to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease.
For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on
psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring
for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting
style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this
issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.


Kritzas N and
Grobler A A (2005) tried to investigate the relationship between perceived
parenting styles and resilience in adolescence. The respondents were a sample
of 360 English speaking subjects, with a mean age of 17.6 years. Hierarchical
regression analyses were used to

investigate this relationship. The criterion
variables included sense of coherence and problem-focused, emotion-focused and
dysfunctional coping strategies. The predictor variables included six scales.
Authoritative parenting provided the most significant contribution to the
explanation of the variance in resilience for black and white adolescents, and
both genders. Surprisingly, the findings suggest that there is a positive
relationship between fathers’ authoritarian styles and emotion-focused coping
strategies in white adolescent learners. In contrast, other researchers found
that authoritarian and harsh parental styles are closely related to
psychological disturbance. The identified relationships between the criterion
and predictor variables found in this study for both black and white
adolescents of both genders have distinct and far-reaching implications for envisaged


Deborah J. Laible, Gustavo Carlo (2004) sought to examine how the parenting dimensions of both mothers
and fathers independently in their study, ‘The Differential
Relations of Maternal and Paternal Support and Control to Adolescent Social
Competence, Self-Worth, and Sympathy’. The study
also attempted to predict adolescent outcomes in three domains: sympathy,
self-worth, and social competence. One-hundred eight adolescents completed
self-report measures on their perceived relationship with parents, sympathy,
social competence, and self-worth. Perceived maternal support and rigid control
were the most consistent predictors of adolescent adjustment. High levels of
perceived maternal support and low levels of maternal rigid control were
related to adolescents’ reports of sympathy, social competence, and self-worth.
In contrast, support and control from fathers was generally unrelated to
adolescent adjustment. The one exception was in predicting sympathy, where
father support interacted with maternal support in predicting sympathy. When
perceived support from fathers was high, maternal support was unrelated to
sympathy. In contrast, when perceived support from fathers was low, perceived
maternal support was a statistically significant predictor of sympathy.


J. M. Oliver and Julie C. Paull
(1995) in their study titled, ‘Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived
parenting and family climate; and depression in university students’ examined
associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable
Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the
family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact
with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate
were construed as “affectionless control,” in which parents and family provide
little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the
Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental
Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory.
Perceived “affectionless control” in both PRS and family climate accounted for
about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression.
Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family
socialization and self-esteem.



Jennifer L Hudson and Ronald M
Rapee (2001) in their research, ‘Parent–child interactions and anxiety
disorders: an observational study’ utilised observational methods to indicate a
potential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised by
control and rejection. In the current study, mother–child interactions were
observed while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sample
consisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children
(n=20) and non-clinical children (n=32). After adjusting for the age and sex of
the child, mothers of anxious children and mothers of oppositional children
displayed greater and more intrusive involvement than mothers of non-clinical
children. Mothers of anxious children were also more negative during the
interactions than mothers of non-clinical children. The differences between
anxious and non-clinical interactions were equivalent across three separate age
groups. The results support the relationship between an overinvolved parenting
style and anxiety but question the specificity of this relationship.


In a study by Avidan Milevsky,
Melissa Schlechter, Sarah Netter and Danielle Keehn (2006), ‘Maternal and
Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem,
Depression and Life-Satisfaction’ examined variations in adolescent adjustment
as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included
272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan
area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and
paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological adjustment.
Authoritative mothering was found to relate to higher self-esteem and
life-satisfaction and to lower depression. Paternal parenting styles was also
related to psychological adjustment, however, although the advantage of
authoritative mothering over permissive mothering was evident for all outcomes
assessed, for paternal styles the advantage was less defined and only evident
for depression. Our study highlights the importance of examining
process-oriented agents as part of the broader interest in well-being
variations in adolescents.



John J. Randolph and Benjamin M.
Dykman (1998) attempted to clarifythe mechanismthrough which dysfunctional
parenting leads todepression in the offspring. In their study titled,
‘Perceptions of Parenting and Depression-Proneness in the Offspring:
Dysfunctional Attitudes as a Mediating Mechanism’, the researchers’ tested a
three-stage causal pathway wherein dysfunctional parenting should giverise to
dysfunctional attitudes in the offspring which,in turn, should give rise to
depression-proneness in theoffspring. Another objective of this study was to
further delineate the types of parentingbehaviors that give rise to
dysfunctional attitudes inthe offspring. To this end, a large sample of
collegestudents (N = 246) completed measures assessing four parenting
dimensions (i.e., low care,overprotection, perfectionistic expectations,
andcriticalness) as well as measures assessingdysfunctional attitudes, general
depression-proneness,and current depression. Support for the depressogenic
effects of allfour parenting dimensions was obtained in that eachparenting
dimension correlated significantly withdysfunctional attitudes and depression
tendencies in the offspring. Moreover, path analyses supportedBeck’s
three-stage causal model with perfectionistic andcritical parenting playing a
particularly prominentrole. Last, after controlling for current depression, the
partial correlations among the variables inthe three-stage model remained
significant, suggestingthat the present findings were not simply the result ofa
mood congruency effect. These findings illuminate additional parenting
behaviors that can havedepressogenic effects and indicate that these parentingbehaviors
exert their effects, at least in part, by wayof instilling dysfunctional
attitudes in the offspring.


Nevelyn N. Trumpeter , P. J.
Watson , Brian J. O’Leary and Bart L. Weathington in their research article,
‘Self-Functioning and Perceived Parenting: Relations of Parental Empathy and
Love Inconsistency With Narcissism, Depression, and Self-Esteem’ examined the
relations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures of
narcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In a sample of university
undergraduates (N = 232; 78 men, 153 women, and 1 nonresponder), perceived
parental empathy predicted more adaptive self-functioning, whereas parental
love inconsistency was related to psychological maladjustment. These results
support the theoretical assumption that perceived parental empathy is
associated with healthy self-development.



Ashley E. Harris and Lisa
Curtin  (2002) in their study ‘Parental
Perceptions, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Depressive Symptoms in Young
Adults’ propose that negative schemas contribute to depressive symptoms. Early
experiences, particularly parenting, have been proposed to influence cognitive
schemas and have also been shown to correlate with depression. This study
explored the concurrent relationship between retrospective reports of
parenting, Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) described by J. E. Young (1994),
and symptoms of depression in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 194). The
EMSs of defectiveness/shame, insufficient self-control, vulnerability, and incompetence/inferiority
were associated with perceptions of parenting and depressive symptomatology.
There was evidence that these four EMSs partially mediate the relationship
between parental perceptions and depressive symptomatology. Results are
discussed in relation to previous findings, theory, and the measurement of


Brunilda Laboviti (2015) in her
study ‘Perceived Parenting Styles and their Impact on Depressive Symptoms in
Adolescent 15-18 Years Old’ examined the relationship between perceived parenting
styles and depressive symptoms adolescent 15-18 years. The literature suggests
that depressive symptoms may be caused by adolescent the negative social
experience and persons who are involved in these experiences. Some features in
the formation of adolescent personality may represent vulnerability for
depression, especially in terms of dysfunctional parenting. The aim of the
research is the measurement, description, study of perceived parenting styles
of adolescents themselves and linkages with the symptoms of depression in teens
as well as analysis of the relationship between them. Measuring instruments
that were used in this research were, Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ)
which was supplemented by an instrument with 30 teenagers and statements that
can be used simultaneously for both the mother and father. Another instrument
Depression Scale for Children (CES – DC). The rate of depression CES – D was
used for the first time by Lenore Radloff while she was requesting scientific
and worked at the National Institute of Mental Health.These questionnaire were
completed by 100 adolescents 15 -18 years . This is a correlation study, which
attempts to reveal the relationship between two variables that appear in the
research questions. In this study is found that there is a meaningful relation
between parenting style and depressive symptoms and parenting style
specifically to authoritative. Much more perceived as authoritative parent, as
mother and father, even less, will report depressive symptoms adolescents in
this study