• • Shannon M. Suldo and E.

•          Zora Raboteg-Saric and Marija Sakic (2013) in their research titles,’Relations of Parenting Styles and Friendship Quality to Self-Esteem, LifeSatisfaction and Happiness in Adolescents’ examined the effects of mother’s andfather’s perceived parenting style and friendship quality on several indicatorsof adolescents’ well-being.

The results showed that the perceived parentingstyle of both parents as well as the quality of friendship had significanteffects on adolescents well-being, while the interaction effects of friendshipquality and either parents’ parenting style were not significant.  •          Roselind Lieb, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Michael Hofler et al., (2000) inthe study, ‘Parental Psychopathology, Parenting Styles, and the Risk of SocialPhobia in Offspring: A Prospective-Longitudinal Community Study’ examined theassociations between DSM-IV social phobia and parentalpsychopathology, parenting style, and characteristics of family functioning ina representative community sample of adolescents. The result of the studysuggest that parental psychopathology, particularly social phobia anddepression, and perceived parenting style (overprotection and rejection) areboth associated with the development of social phobia in youth.  •          MaxineGallander Wintre and Mordechai Yaffe (2000), in their reasearchstudy, ‘First-YearStudents’ Adjustment to University Life as a Function of Relationships withParents’ investigated the contributions that perceived parenting style, currentrelationships with parents, and psychological well-being variables make towardperceived overall adjustment to university, from both socio/emotionaladaptation perspectives and actual academic achievement. Results indicatedthat mutual reciprocity and discussion with parents, as well as thepsychological well-being variables, have direct links to adjustment touniversity. There was an indirect, positive relationship between authoritativeparenting and adaptation variables. Furthermore, the predictor variablesdiffered by both gender and outcome measures.

 •          Shannon M. Suldo and E. Scott Huebner(2004), in ‘The Role of Life Satisfaction in the Relationship BetweenAuthoritative Parenting Dimensions and Adolescent Problem Behaviour’ examined the environmental factors associated with adolescents’ lifesatisfaction and has revealed that familial variables (e.g., parent-childconflict, family structure) are crucial correlates. The purpose of their studywas to identify particular dimensions of authoritative parenting that arerelated to Life satisfaction during early, middle, and late adolescence.Results indicated statistically that there is a significant relationshipbetween each authoritative parenting dimension and adolescent Lifesatisfaction.

   •          A. Furnham and H. Cheng (2000)in their study titled, ‘Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem andhappiness’, investigated to what extent recalled parental rearing styles(authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion,neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happinessin a normal, non-clinical, population of young people in their late teens andearly 20s. The study concluded that Self-esteem was both a direct and amoderator variable for young people’s self-reported happiness. Maternalauthoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal andmaternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonablediscipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularlybeneficial in enhancing the off-springs’ self-esteem. •          Cohen M,Mansoor D, Gagin R and Lorber A (2008) designed their research tittled ‘Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distressin adolescents with heart disease  to assess the relationships between perceivedparenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents withheart disease compared with healthy adolescents.

Forty-five adolescents, aged12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matchedadolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed moodand anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceivedacceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, butsimilar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Statistical analysesshowed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressedmood, anxiety and self esteem.

In the study group, higher perceived parentalacceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem,whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In thecontrol, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control wasassociated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style provedto exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease.For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect onpsychological well-being than perceived parental control.

Professionals caringfor these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parentingstyle on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address thisissue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents. •          Kritzas N andGrobler A A (2005) tried to investigate the relationship between perceivedparenting styles and resilience in adolescence. The respondents were a sampleof 360 English speaking subjects, with a mean age of 17.6 years. Hierarchicalregression analyses were used to investigate this relationship. The criterionvariables included sense of coherence and problem-focused, emotion-focused anddysfunctional coping strategies. The predictor variables included six scales.Authoritative parenting provided the most significant contribution to theexplanation of the variance in resilience for black and white adolescents, andboth genders.

Surprisingly, the findings suggest that there is a positiverelationship between fathers’ authoritarian styles and emotion-focused copingstrategies in white adolescent learners. In contrast, other researchers foundthat authoritarian and harsh parental styles are closely related topsychological disturbance. The identified relationships between the criterionand predictor variables found in this study for both black and whiteadolescents of both genders have distinct and far-reaching implications for envisagedinterventions. •             Deborah J. Laible, Gustavo Carlo (2004) sought to examine how the parenting dimensions of both mothersand fathers independently in their study, ‘The DifferentialRelations of Maternal and Paternal Support and Control to Adolescent SocialCompetence, Self-Worth, and Sympathy’. The studyalso attempted to predict adolescent outcomes in three domains: sympathy,self-worth, and social competence. One-hundred eight adolescents completedself-report measures on their perceived relationship with parents, sympathy,social competence, and self-worth.

Perceived maternal support and rigid controlwere the most consistent predictors of adolescent adjustment. High levels ofperceived maternal support and low levels of maternal rigid control wererelated to adolescents’ reports of sympathy, social competence, and self-worth.In contrast, support and control from fathers was generally unrelated toadolescent adjustment. The one exception was in predicting sympathy, wherefather support interacted with maternal support in predicting sympathy.

Whenperceived support from fathers was high, maternal support was unrelated tosympathy. In contrast, when perceived support from fathers was low, perceivedmaternal support was a statistically significant predictor of sympathy. •             J. M. Oliver and Julie C. Paull(1995) in their study titled, ‘Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceivedparenting and family climate; and depression in university students’ examinedassociations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorableParental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in thefamily of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contactwith their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climatewere construed as “affectionless control,” in which parents and family providelittle affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by theSelf-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of ParentalBehavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory.

Perceived “affectionless control” in both PRS and family climate accounted forabout 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression.Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between familysocialization and self-esteem.  •             Jennifer L Hudson and Ronald MRapee (2001) in their research, ‘Parent–child interactions and anxietydisorders: an observational study’ utilised observational methods to indicate apotential link between anxiety and parenting styles that are characterised bycontrol and rejection.

In the current study, mother–child interactions wereobserved while the child completed two difficult cognitive tasks. The sampleconsisted of clinically anxious children (n=43), oppositional defiant children(n=20) and non-clinical children (n=32). After adjusting for the age and sex ofthe child, mothers of anxious children and mothers of oppositional childrendisplayed greater and more intrusive involvement than mothers of non-clinicalchildren. Mothers of anxious children were also more negative during theinteractions than mothers of non-clinical children. The differences betweenanxious and non-clinical interactions were equivalent across three separate agegroups. The results support the relationship between an overinvolved parentingstyle and anxiety but question the specificity of this relationship.

 •             In a study by Avidan Milevsky,Melissa Schlechter, Sarah Netter and Danielle Keehn (2006), ‘Maternal andPaternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem,Depression and Life-Satisfaction’ examined variations in adolescent adjustmentas a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitanarea of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal andpaternal parenting styles and indices of psychological adjustment.Authoritative mothering was found to relate to higher self-esteem andlife-satisfaction and to lower depression.

Paternal parenting styles was alsorelated to psychological adjustment, however, although the advantage ofauthoritative mothering over permissive mothering was evident for all outcomesassessed, for paternal styles the advantage was less defined and only evidentfor depression. Our study highlights the importance of examiningprocess-oriented agents as part of the broader interest in well-beingvariations in adolescents.  •             John J.

Randolph and Benjamin M.Dykman (1998) attempted to clarifythe mechanismthrough which dysfunctionalparenting leads todepression in the offspring. In their study titled,’Perceptions of Parenting and Depression-Proneness in the Offspring:Dysfunctional Attitudes as a Mediating Mechanism’, the researchers’ tested athree-stage causal pathway wherein dysfunctional parenting should giverise todysfunctional attitudes in the offspring which,in turn, should give rise todepression-proneness in theoffspring.

Another objective of this study was tofurther delineate the types of parentingbehaviors that give rise todysfunctional attitudes inthe offspring. To this end, a large sample ofcollegestudents (N = 246) completed measures assessing four parentingdimensions (i.e., low care,overprotection, perfectionistic expectations,andcriticalness) as well as measures assessingdysfunctional attitudes, generaldepression-proneness,and current depression. Support for the depressogeniceffects of allfour parenting dimensions was obtained in that eachparentingdimension correlated significantly withdysfunctional attitudes and depressiontendencies in the offspring. Moreover, path analyses supportedBeck’sthree-stage causal model with perfectionistic andcritical parenting playing aparticularly prominentrole. Last, after controlling for current depression, thepartial correlations among the variables inthe three-stage model remainedsignificant, suggestingthat the present findings were not simply the result ofamood congruency effect. These findings illuminate additional parentingbehaviors that can havedepressogenic effects and indicate that these parentingbehaviorsexert their effects, at least in part, by wayof instilling dysfunctionalattitudes in the offspring.

 •             Nevelyn N. Trumpeter , P. J.Watson , Brian J. O’Leary and Bart L. Weathington in their research article,’Self-Functioning and Perceived Parenting: Relations of Parental Empathy andLove Inconsistency With Narcissism, Depression, and Self-Esteem’ examined therelations of perceived parental empathy and love inconsistency with measures ofnarcissism, self-esteem, and depression. In a sample of universityundergraduates (N = 232; 78 men, 153 women, and 1 nonresponder), perceivedparental empathy predicted more adaptive self-functioning, whereas parentallove inconsistency was related to psychological maladjustment. These resultssupport the theoretical assumption that perceived parental empathy isassociated with healthy self-development.

  •             Ashley E. Harris and LisaCurtin  (2002) in their study ‘ParentalPerceptions, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Depressive Symptoms in YoungAdults’ propose that negative schemas contribute to depressive symptoms. Earlyexperiences, particularly parenting, have been proposed to influence cognitiveschemas and have also been shown to correlate with depression. This studyexplored the concurrent relationship between retrospective reports ofparenting, Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) described by J.

E. Young (1994),and symptoms of depression in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 194). TheEMSs of defectiveness/shame, insufficient self-control, vulnerability, and incompetence/inferioritywere associated with perceptions of parenting and depressive symptomatology.There was evidence that these four EMSs partially mediate the relationshipbetween parental perceptions and depressive symptomatology.

Results arediscussed in relation to previous findings, theory, and the measurement ofEMSs. •             Brunilda Laboviti (2015) in herstudy ‘Perceived Parenting Styles and their Impact on Depressive Symptoms inAdolescent 15-18 Years Old’ examined the relationship between perceived parentingstyles and depressive symptoms adolescent 15-18 years. The literature suggeststhat depressive symptoms may be caused by adolescent the negative socialexperience and persons who are involved in these experiences. Some features inthe formation of adolescent personality may represent vulnerability fordepression, especially in terms of dysfunctional parenting. The aim of theresearch is the measurement, description, study of perceived parenting stylesof adolescents themselves and linkages with the symptoms of depression in teensas well as analysis of the relationship between them.

Measuring instrumentsthat were used in this research were, Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ)which was supplemented by an instrument with 30 teenagers and statements thatcan be used simultaneously for both the mother and father. Another instrumentDepression Scale for Children (CES – DC). The rate of depression CES – D wasused for the first time by Lenore Radloff while she was requesting scientificand worked at the National Institute of Mental Health.

These questionnaire werecompleted by 100 adolescents 15 -18 years . This is a correlation study, whichattempts to reveal the relationship between two variables that appear in theresearch questions. In this study is found that there is a meaningful relationbetween parenting style and depressive symptoms and parenting stylespecifically to authoritative. Much more perceived as authoritative parent, asmother and father, even less, will report depressive symptoms adolescents inthis study