• addition, the amendments granted the government

• The purpose of the Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA) is to protect the rights of navigation in Canadian waters and to protect Canada’s rivers from pollution.• The NWPA was enacted in 1882 and is the oldest environmental law. The enactment of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) influenced the level of protection that is covered by the NWPA. • In 2009 amendments were passed by the government that weakened the NWPA’s protection for navigation and the environment.• In addition, the amendments granted the government unfettered discretion to further exempt certain classes of works and waterways from the NWPA’s approval process. • The 2009 amendments reduced publics involvement in projects relating to navigation.• In 2012 in July the jobs, Growth and Long-term Prosperity Act was passed by the government which changed the federal environmental assessment process. • The NWPA was also changed to the Navigations Protection Act (NPA) and is to minimize interference with navigation on Canadian waters. • In 2009, the federal government passed amendments that reduced the number of water ways that were protected by the NWPA which really weakened the Act as that is the main purpose of it.• The amendments reduced publics involvement in projects relating to navigation.• Something that was added in 2009, was the powers of inspections and enforcements.• Fines have been increased and accompanied with jail time• In 2012 not only was the NWPA changed to Navigation Protection Act but amendments that were proposed in Bill C-45 showed the separation of the environmental protection and the navigation protection. • The amendments weakened the NPA because it no longer protected the water but instead just protected navigation. Some of the specific changes included:• Protection of only 3 oceans, 97 lakes, and portions of 62 rivers• Canada is estimated to contain nearly 32,000 major lakes and more than 2.25 million rivers which means 99.7% of waterways are not protected.• Any pieces of water that were still included in the NPA do not have a very strong protection.• Due to the changes of the NPA it now leaves free rein for people to dump foreign materials, objects and debris in Canadian waterways.• The NPA would remove all automatic public participation opportunities.• The current list of criteria is over simplified and would likely be conversed regardless so that it has minimal effect.• The Bill C-45 amendments would prohibit the dewatering of any navigable water.• As it stands now, big large industrial businesses can impact environment and water without any resources or requiring approval.