1.1 on, utilizing this technique as one

Operational definitions

1.1.1  Independent variable

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·      Cryotherapy:  In this study, the cryotherapy (ice in plastic page) was applied for five
minutes in the two study groups, either before SCAI in group-2 or after SCAI in

1.1.2  Dependent variables

·      Pain
intensity: it was measured immediately
after the needle was withdrawn in group-1 (control group), and study group-2
(cryotherapy before to SCAI); while, it was measured five minutes after
injection in order to apply the cryotherapy among group-3 (cryotherapy after SCAI).

·      Hematoma
formation: Hematoma is generally defined as a collection of
blood outside of blood vessels due to an injury to the blood vessel wall, which
prompting blood to outflow out the blood vessel into the surrounding tissues 5,8.
Hematoma was observed after the day of SCAI in the control group and the two
study groups (48hrs and 72hrs) for assessing its incidence of occurrence and
size. Presence or absence of
hematoma at injection sites was recorded by observing any discoloration of the
injection site (pink, red, blue, purple, pale green, yellow, and brown).    


Material and Methods


A quasi-experimental design was
utilized to accomplish this study purpose.

Participants and settings

All available patients who met the inclusion criteria over a
period of six months (January-June 2017) and willing to participate were
included in the study. A total of 105
patients participated in this study. During the time of recruitment, patients
who met the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated into three groups as the
1st patient was assigned in the control group (G1), the 2nd
patient was in the group-2 (G2), and the 3rd patient was in group-3 (G3)
and so on, utilizing this technique as one of the commonly used simple random assignment
methods 15 in order to keep every patient having an equal probability of
being assigned in the three groups and control and to unbiased representation
of the group (sample flowchart in Diagram 1).

The three groups investigated in this study:

group G1, n = 35, who received the routine hospital care (RHC) and two study
groups G2 = 35 & G3 = 35, who followed routine hospital care alongside
five minutes cryotherapy application. G2 received five minutes cryotherapy
before SCAI, and G3 received cryotherapy after SCAI.

The study was conducted at medical, surgical, cardiovascular
and orthopedic departments in one of the biggest Teaching Hospitals in Cairo
City, Egypt. These settings were selected because admitted patients were
usually receiving SCAI as a prophylaxis medicine.