1. a language. In this study, the

1.     Contrastive Linguistics: An Exploration of Ideophones in Yoruba andEdo Speech Communities By:  Ayoola Oluwafunmiso MosesThe focus of the study is ideophones in Yoruba and Edospeech communities. It relates to sound and meaning of a language. In thisstudy, the researcher wants to know if there are syntactic, semanticor pragmatic features of words in Edo and Yoruba ideophones by looking at thefeatures of the ideophones that are selected. The researcher uses a contrastiveapproach which is inspired by the canonical typology idea to analyze andclassify the Yoruba and Edo ideophones. The researcher uses the interview thatis conducted for thirty subjects from Ibadan, Oyo state and Akoko Edo, EdoState of Nigeria to collect data of this study. The result shows that there areideophones in the two selected languages, Yoruba and Edo.

They have certaincategory such phonetic, phonological, morphological, and semantic. Thesespecific can be used determining its status as a linguistic entity.  2.     Contrastive Linguistics and Analysis of Errors inSpanish Teaching to Students Whose Native Language is GermanBy:  Assist.Prof. Dr. Ebru Yener Gök?enliThe focus of this study is the grammatical units ofSpanish language as a foreign language for German students.

Identifying thedifficulties in learning Spanish as a foreign language faced by German studentsis an aim of this study. This study also aims to determine whether there is anycoherence between these difficulties and their distant native language. Theresearcher wants to analyze the repeated errors in grammatical units whilelearning Spanish.

This study also wants to define the fossilized errors andshow some examples that the students make in the exams given. In this study,the researcher uses an examination (six grammar parts and two pats oftranslarion)  that is given to Austrianstudents  to collect the data of thisstudy. 3.      ContrastiveLinguistics and Translation Studies Interconnected: The Corpus-based ApproachBy: Noelia Ramon GraciaContrastive linguistics andtranslation studies are as two disciplines wwithin the field of appliedlinguistic. Both disciplines have close relationship. They also have a connectionwith corpora.

This study focuses on the relationship between both disciplinesand also relationship between two disciplines with corpora. Bothdisciplines are related to language and linguistics in general and appliedlinguistics in particular. Both disciplines deal with two languages at the sametime. Translation was regarded as a subdivision of other disciplines such ascontrastive linguistic or interlanguage studies.

Corpus-based approach is necessary to contrastive linguistic and translationstudies. It is used to revise the connection between them. Electronic corporahave played an important role in reshaping both disciplines. Contrastivelinguistic and translation studies present a parallel evolution in recentyears, with a clear shift of focus from theoretical perspectives to descriptiveand applied issues sustained by language corpora called translation-orientedCL. Corpus does not only give an important progress in contrastivelinguistic and translation studies.

Corpus also gives a big influence in thedisciplines and in their relationships. 4.      ContrastiveAnalysis of Prepositional ErrorsBy: Hafiz Ahmad Bilal, Abdur Rehman Tariq, Shabana Yaqub, Sadia KanwalThe focus of this study is the prepositional errorsin the written texts in English as a second language for learners. This studyuses quantitative approach and it also use error analysis method to diagnoseprepositional errors in the written texts. This study aims to examine theprepositional errors found in the written texts of secondary school of Pakistanwhen they learn English as a foreign language.

The sample of this studyconsists of 100 written texts that are collected from randomly differentprivate and Government secondary school which are selected in Sargodha. This paperwill discuss the identification, description, categorization, and explanationof errors that are found in selected written texts. The results show that Urduas mother tongue of learners is the dominance of inters language inprepositional errors.5.     Classification of Adjectives in Terms of English and PersianContrastive AnalysisBy: Leila Zarei, Seyyed Ali Kazemi, MohammadHasan NejadThe focus of this study is adjectives in English and Persian languages. Thereare more derived adjectives in Persian particularly in case of suffixesrepresented by comparing adjectives in English and Persian.

It can causetrouble for the learners of language and those who translate English intoPersian language. In addition, the lack of present participle in Persian as itexists can be another source of errors. In this study, contrastive analysishelps methodologists to pay attention to what and how to teach. It also helpsto solve the problems of language learners when they are involved in listening,writing, reading, speaking, and translation tasks.  English and Persian adjectives have somesimilar and different features.

The features can influence language learning orteaching and translation.