1. a language. In this study, the

Contrastive Linguistics: An Exploration of Ideophones in Yoruba and
Edo Speech Communities

By:  Ayoola Oluwafunmiso Moses

The focus of the study is ideophones in Yoruba and Edo
speech communities. It relates to sound and meaning of a language. In this
study, the researcher wants to know if there are syntactic, semantic
or pragmatic features of words in Edo and Yoruba ideophones by looking at the
features of the ideophones that are selected. The researcher uses a contrastive
approach which is inspired by the canonical typology idea to analyze and
classify the Yoruba and Edo ideophones. The researcher uses the interview that
is conducted for thirty subjects from Ibadan, Oyo state and Akoko Edo, Edo
State of Nigeria to collect data of this study. The result shows that there are
ideophones in the two selected languages, Yoruba and Edo. They have certain
category such phonetic, phonological, morphological, and semantic. These
specific can be used determining its status as a linguistic entity.


Contrastive Linguistics and Analysis of Errors in
Spanish Teaching to Students Whose Native Language is German

By:  Assist.
Prof. Dr. Ebru Yener Gök?enli

The focus of this study is the grammatical units of
Spanish language as a foreign language for German students. Identifying the
difficulties in learning Spanish as a foreign language faced by German students
is an aim of this study. This study also aims to determine whether there is any
coherence between these difficulties and their distant native language. The
researcher wants to analyze the repeated errors in grammatical units while
learning Spanish. This study also wants to define the fossilized errors and
show some examples that the students make in the exams given. In this study,
the researcher uses an examination (six grammar parts and two pats of
translarion)  that is given to Austrian
students  to collect the data of this

3.      Contrastive
Linguistics and Translation Studies Interconnected: The Corpus-based Approach

By: Noelia Ramon Gracia

Contrastive linguistics and
translation studies are as two disciplines wwithin the field of applied
linguistic. Both disciplines have close relationship. They also have a connection
with corpora. This study focuses on the relationship between both disciplines
and also relationship between two disciplines with corpora. Both
disciplines are related to language and linguistics in general and applied
linguistics in particular. Both disciplines deal with two languages at the same
time. Translation was regarded as a subdivision of other disciplines such as
contrastive linguistic or interlanguage studies.
Corpus-based approach is necessary to contrastive linguistic and translation
studies. It is used to revise the connection between them. Electronic corpora
have played an important role in reshaping both disciplines. Contrastive
linguistic and translation studies present a parallel evolution in recent
years, with a clear shift of focus from theoretical perspectives to descriptive
and applied issues sustained by language corpora called translation-oriented
CL. Corpus does not only give an important progress in contrastive
linguistic and translation studies. Corpus also gives a big influence in the
disciplines and in their relationships.

4.      Contrastive
Analysis of Prepositional Errors

By: Hafiz Ahmad Bilal, Abdur Rehman Tariq, Shabana Yaqub, Sadia Kanwal

The focus of this study is the prepositional errors
in the written texts in English as a second language for learners. This study
uses quantitative approach and it also use error analysis method to diagnose
prepositional errors in the written texts. This study aims to examine the
prepositional errors found in the written texts of secondary school of Pakistan
when they learn English as a foreign language. The sample of this study
consists of 100 written texts that are collected from randomly different
private and Government secondary school which are selected in Sargodha. This paper
will discuss the identification, description, categorization, and explanation
of errors that are found in selected written texts. The results show that Urdu
as mother tongue of learners is the dominance of inters language in
prepositional errors.

Classification of Adjectives in Terms of English and Persian
Contrastive Analysis

By: Leila Zarei, Seyyed Ali Kazemi, Mohammad
Hasan Nejad

The focus of this study is adjectives in English and Persian languages. There
are more derived adjectives in Persian particularly in case of suffixes
represented by comparing adjectives in English and Persian. It can cause
trouble for the learners of language and those who translate English into
Persian language. In addition, the lack of present participle in Persian as it
exists can be another source of errors. In this study, contrastive analysis
helps methodologists to pay attention to what and how to teach. It also helps
to solve the problems of language learners when they are involved in listening,
writing, reading, speaking, and translation tasks.  English and Persian adjectives have some
similar and different features. The features can influence language learning or
teaching and translation.