1. and vegetables, and most dark green

1.     What vitamins is Sam probably
lacking in his diet? (4 points)

does not have sufficient intake of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish, or wheat
in his diet, do to this he is likely deficient in many Vitamins. Sam is likely
lacking Vitamin A in his diet since he does not consume Provitamin A
carotenoids, which are converted to an active form of Vitamin A when
metabolized in the body.  They are found
in deep yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, and most dark green leafy
vegetables.  Since Sam does not consume
fruit and vegetables in his diet, he is likely deficiency in Vitamin A, as he
is not consuming Provtiamin A carotene to be converted into Vitamin A.  

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may also be lacking in Vitamin K, as it is synthesized from green plants, and
found in leafy green vegetables. He may also be deficient in Folate as it is also
found in green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, fish, and lean beef,
which he does not consume.  He is also
probably inadequate in Vitamin C, as it is found mostly in citrus fruit,
tomato, melon, peppers, greens, potatoes, kiwi, pineapple, and strawberries.  Overall Sam in likely lacking in the Vitamins
found in fruits and vegetables (Tillia, 2018). He may also be deficient in
Vitamin E as it is found in nuts, seeds, wheat germ, dark green vegetables,
whole grains, and fortified cereals; which he is not consuming.  He is also likely lacking in or have low
levels of  Vitamin B6, as he may be
getting some of it from the poultry in his diet, but he does not consume many
sources of it, as it is also found in fruits, green leafy vegetables, whole
grains, nuts, dried peas and beans (Dudek,

2.     What vitamins is he probably getting
enough of? (4 points)

consumes many grains, which are likely enriched, animal meats, such as eggs, chicken,
and ham, and he also has dairy in his diet. Based on this information Sam may
have adequate amount of Vitamins that are found in enriched and fortified
foods, as well as animal protein and dairy sources.

          Sam is probably
sufficient in Vitamin D, as it is naturally made by healthy individuals if they
have adequate sunlight exposure, as the UV light combines with cholesterol in
the skin to make Vitamin D.  He may also
have adequate Thiamin, since it is found in enriched and fortified foods, which
most of the foods in his diet likely are. 
He is likely also sufficient in Riboflavin, as it is also found in
enriched grains, and in fortified cereals, milk and milk products. Niacin is
also found in enriched grains, as well as milk, and eggs, so he likely also
consumes adequate amounts of it.

Pantothenic acid
is also probably adequate since it is found in all plant and animal sources,
and he consumes many animal food sources. Vitamin B12 is also found in animal
sources, so he is likely adequate (Tillia, 2018).


3.     Are there better choices he could
make at fast-food restaurants that would improve his vitamin intake? (2 points)

Sam could try to
increase his fruit and vegetable intake by getting a side salad or cup of fruit
instead of chips, macaroni salad, or other sides with his meals.  He could also try to choose whole grain bread
options instead of white bread.  He could
also get smoothies or natural fruit juices instead of soft drinks.  Sam could also substitute grilled chicken
instead of fried chicken with some of his meals (Dudek, 2014).


4.     What suggestions would you make for
keeping “quick” and “easy” food in his apartment that would improve his vitamin
intake without being too much “bother”? (2 points)

have a quick and easy source of vitamins Sam could try to have easy to eat
fruit in his apartment, such as apples or bananas, that he can eat on his way
to classes.  He could also buy premade
salads to eat quickly for lunch.  Instead
of having chips to snack on he could try to have bags of nuts or seeds that he
can eat.  He could also snack on
prewashed raw vegetables, like baby carrots. He could also buy premade smoothie
drinks to have if he does not have time to make his own, to get a quick source
of many fruits (Dudek, 2014).

5.     How would you respond to this
question from Sam: “Can I just take a multivitamin so I don’t have to make
changes in my eating habits?”  (2 point)

would teach Sam that supplements can not act as replacements for heathy foods,
as he gets other nutritional benefits from healthy foods, besides the
vitamins.  I would make sure he
understood that supplements should only act to add to a good diet.

he were to begin taking supplements I would teach him that he should select a
multivitamin that provides 100% of the daily value for vitamins that have an
established daily value, and that there is no need to take more than 100% of
the daily value (Tillia, 2018).