1. Background A. OverviewErectile Dysfunction (ED) is characterized as the continuous failure to keep or attain an erection adequate enough for sexual activity. It is a standout amongst the most untreated therapeutic issue as men are generally humiliated about being inept and want to abstain from engaging in sexual relations as opposed to looking for help.
Around one of every 10 grown-up guys will experience the ill effects of ED on a long term basis. Numerous men do encounter periodic inability to attain erection, which can happen for an assortment of reasons, for example, drinking excessively liquor, smoking, stress, relationship issues, or from extreme fatigue. The inability to get an erection under 20% of the time is normal and generally does not require treatment. In any case, the inability to accomplish an erection over half of the time by and large implies that there is an issue as it can be a side effect of a serious therapeutic illness, for example, coronary illness or advanced vascular disease and treatment is required.
Once the reasons for ED are known, the issues can be dealt with and the condition can be turned around or better managed. Finally, there are numerous effective treatments medicines available for this condition. The available medications will be discussed in this report.B. Pathophysiology and Prognosis of erectile dysfunctionAn erection comes about with any form of sexual stimulation.
The brain passes on a note along the NANC neuron to signal erection of penis due to sexual arousement. NANC stand for nonadrenergic and noncholinergic which utilize nitric oxide to pass on the message. Nitric oxide (NO) will travel towards the neurovascular bundle that “hug” the prostate organ, producing guanylate cyclase enzyme.Guanylate cyclase turns the GTP into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and it produces a substrate called Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP). cGMP triggers corpora cavernosa smooth muscles to relax so that the blood is able to fill into the spaces. This leads to an erection as a pressure is created in the corpora cavernosa. Tunica albuginea helps in sustaining the erection by preventing blood in corpora cavernosa to flow out.
However, as the smooth muscles contract, cGMP will be broken down by phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme (PDE 5). PDE 5 will turn cGMP back into GTP to stop the inflow of blood, causing erection to die down.