2-Calque: or loan translation is a word or


 Calque is a word –for –word translation of
words from one language to another. It is the direct translation of
collocations elements .Calque is usually considered as a preferred option by
translators. In calque, formal equivalents in source language are rendered into
the target language.

 Munday,  (2008:56) defines calques as: ”Calque
translation is rendering a collocation by direct translation of its elements.
The idea of calque is based on literal translation of source language text
directly into target language without distorting the meaning intended. Examples

1-Civil law:?????
????      2-Basketball: ???
???   3-Adam’s Apple:?????
??? .

It is the easiest and simplest method of
translation that translators always apply , since it is direct, literal, and
formal equivalence in the target language ,and easily available at hand.

Wikipedia electronic encyclopedia backs
the above mentioned strategies and methods, citing: ”A calque or loan
translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word
–for –word or root –for –root translation .

Smith, (2006: 20) divides calques into
the following five types:-

1-Semantic Calque: Computer mouse:????

2-Phraseology Calque: Flea market:

Blau , (1981:60-61) states ”Widespread
loan translations from European languages have not only become part of the
Modern Standard Arabic vocabulary, but also phraseology…..European influence
is strong in journalistic style, especially when journalists translate from
European languages into Arabic .This journalistic style in return has
influenced users of the language , including authors”. Examples
include:-Save a situation:???? ????? ,
anarchy prevailed:???? ??????
, intellectual life:???? ?????
, general assembly:????? ??????  , legislative assembly:?????
???????  ,
preliminary talks:??????? ???????  , striking force:???
?????  , and honorary doctorate:???????  ?????

3-Syntactic Calque: Where a syntactic
function or construction in the source language is imitated in the target

4-Loan Translation: A term borrowed from
source language and then directly translated into target language. Example,
Star Wars :??? ??????  

5-Morphological Calque: Translation of
words according to morphological elements like affixations, inflections and
derivations. Example, gastroenterology ???
/?? ?????? ??????  


 Modulation is a local translation strategy
(procedure) exactly  a change in point of
view in the target language. Vinay and Darbelnet (1995:36)state ”Modulation
is a variation of the form of the message , obtained by a change in the point
of view”.

Thus, modulation is an aspect change. The
nature of change here attributed to grammar or meaning, and the collocation is
changed accordingly . Modulation can be divided into the following categories:-

1-Obligatory Modulation: Stagehand :????
?????? , hire hand:???? ??????? ,
farmhand: ???? ??????? .The word hand is translated compulsorily
into ????  instead of ??
 ; the part of the body at
the end of the arm.

2-Optional Modulation: The translator
here has available options at hand, examples:- Freedom of speech:????
??????? /???? ?????? /???? ????? , freedom of movement:

???? ?????? /????
???????? /???? ?????. ,when necessary:???
?????? /??? ???????

Holding company:????
????? /???? ??????     

Vinay and Darbelnet (1965, cited in
Munday 2002:58 ) listed 11 kinds of modulation:-

1-Negation of Opposites: Cowardly: ???

2-Reversal of Terms: It is not easy to: ??

3-Cause for Effect: You look pale, are you
ok. ?? ??? ????

4-Means for Result: I will drive you home:??????
???????? ??? ?????

5-A part for the Whole: Manpower:????

6-Part for Another Part: Knuckle cracking:?????

7-Abstract for Concrete: I haven’t heard a
word from him: ?? ????? ????? ???

8-Active to Passive and vice versa. The
book was read by Hassan: ?? ???? ?????? ?? ???

9-Space for Time:
kindergarten, I was very punctual: ?????
??? ???? ?? ?????? ,??? ???? ?? ?????? ????????.

10-Exchange of Intervals for limits (in
space and time) (time and space in SL expressions are rendered as fixed points
in TL).No parking between signs: ????

11-Change of Symbol (exchange of mental
images about a given concept):  They
are as like as two peas:???????? ????? ??????
???? ???????, We got the information from the horse’s
mouth:?????? ??? ????????? ?? ?? ?????