2. Dr. Okoro’s note 2017 Petroleum engineering department covenantuniversity1. Baker Hughes Drilling fluid reference manualREFERENCES Also, we observed a drop in PH of the mud on addition of 3g of KCLmeaning KCL is effective for reducing Ph of a drilling mud The reason that the pH level is important is that muchmore drilling additive will be needed to achieve the right viscosity if the pHlevel is too low. Checking your pH levels will save you product and money inthe long runDrilling muds are always treated to bealkaline and PH affects viscosity, it was also noted that bentonite is leastaffected if PH range is between 9.5 and 10.
5 (Dr. Okoro 2017). The calorimetricmethod isn’t as accurate as the electrometric method and can’t be used in highsalt ConcentrationCONCLUSION Also the mud was observed tobecome significantly thicker (in viscosity) after the addition of KCL From the experiment the pH reducedfrom 9 to about 8 and this reduces the effectiveness of organic additives.
This experiment brought outthe effect of adding KCL as an additive or a contaminant during drilling operations,the addition of the salt caused a reduction in the pH making the mud to be slightlyacidic and is not a desire property as this can lead to further problems such ascorrosion of the drill string as well as the casing. The pH of a drilling mud isof importance and needs to be constantly monitored by a mud engineer because itdirectly affects the viscosity of mud. And generally muds are alkaline, having apH greater than 7.DISCUSSIONSCHAPTER 5 5. I ensured the probe was kept moist4. I ensured I allowed the probe to stayin the mud for about 60 seconds to ensure an accurate reading 3. I ensured I rinsed the Bulb of the PHmeter after use2.
I ensured I didn’t stick the Ph paperinto the mud but put it on the surface1. I ensured I avoided parallax errortaking readings from the graduated cylinderPrecautions Sample 1 (25g/250ml) Sample 1 + 3g of KCL Temperature (Celsius) Electrometric 9.01 8.07 27.8 Colorimetric 9.0 8.0 28.0 mv -105.
5 -45 RESULT AND PRECAUTIONS CHAPTER 4 – I stored the sensitive bub backclean and rinsed -I ensured I kept the probe moist andput the rubber cap supplied with the probe as a cover Maintenance 5. Added 3g of KCL and repeatedthe procedures above.4. Took the PH readings as well as thetemperature readings3. Rinsed the probe, thenimmersed it into the drilling mud and allowedabout 60 seconds for the readings to stabilize2. Pushed the Ph/mv key until the desiredmode was achieved.1. I switched on the powerswitch of the pH meterElectrometricmethod 5.
Added 3g of KCL and repeatedprocedure 3 and 44. I matched the colour to the colour ona standard colour chart indicating the PH and took the reading3. I placed a strip of Ph paper on thesurface of the mud and waited for the side facing upwards to change colour2. I turned on the mixer,slowly pouring the 25g of weighed bentonite and mixed for a while until the mudhad attained a good consistency1. Using a measuring cylinder,I measured out 350ml of water and poured it into the mixing cup of the mixerColorimetricmethodEXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURECHAPTER 3Fig 1.0 pH paper Fig 2.0 pH Meter Sample 2: sample 1 + additive (3g of KCL)Sample 1: 25 g of bentonite in 350mlof water 5.
PH Meter: This is an electric meter that measures PH to the nearest 0.1phunit.4. PH Paper and colour chart: This was used to observe a colour change andmatched against the standard colour chart3. Measuring Cylinder: It was used to measure the required volume of water.
2. Electric Mixer: The electric mixer was used to mix and create a homogenousmixture of sample 1 and sample 21. Weigh Balance: It was used toobtain the required weight of bentonite as well as barite needed for theexperiment Thefollowing apparatus were used during the experimentEXPERMINETAL APPARATUSCHAPTER 2 – Thermal stability oflignosulphonate systems improves above 10.0- Reduced corrosion rated athigher PH- Maximum effectiveness oforganic dispersants and filtration control agents A high PH of about 9.5 to 10.
5 is givenfor the following reasons:It is a fact that the PH of mud is generally alkaline and, in factviscosity control agents like bentonite are more efficient at a PH greater than9. The PH of a drilling mud is the negativelogarithm of hydrogen ion(H+) concentration. Freshwater usually hasan equal concentration of both hydroxyl and hydrogen ions making it have a PHof 7. The PH of a drilling mud can be determined using a colorimetric method,which utilizes chemically-treated PHydrion paper which is placed on the surfaceof the fluid until a color change is noted and matched with a color chart. Ifsalt concentration is greater than 16,000 m g/l CL-, PH paper is notrecommended.
INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER 1 6. REFERNECES————————————————————- 10 5. CONCLUSION———————————————————– 9 5. DISCUSSION——————————————————–8 4. RESULT AND PRECAUTIONS————————————— 7 3.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ANDMAINTENANCE————- 6 2. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS—————————————-5 1. INTRODUCTION—————————————————– 4CHAPTERS TABLE OFCONTENTS——————————————- 3 ABSTACT——————————————————- 2TITLETable of content Keywords: drilling mud, pH of drillingfluid, KCL additive It was discovered that addition ofthe KCL reduced the PH of the drilling mud and this is of importance because itindicates that KCL is an effective PH control additive.In this experiment we determined thePH and Temperature of a water-based drilling mud with both the colorimetric andElectrometric method and added KCL to determine its effect on PH.The pH of a drilling mud is one very importantproperty that needs to be closely monitored as it has numerous implications on drillingcost and problems.ABSTRACT Date submitted: 27th January, 2018Date performed: 26th January, 2018 15CN03211ADEYEMI OLUWAFISAYO BY EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY CANAAN LAND, OTACOVENANT UNIVERSITY