The Frame of Grounded Theory and how to use it
Theory is a common word
within academic environment, it is used so often that the true meaning can be
lost. Theory can be described in three main forms in the context of research
(Reynolds, 2007). A theory can be a “conception of scientific knowledge as a
set of well-supported empirical generalizations, such as a set of laws,” or “an
trans-disciplinary interrelated set of definitions, axioms, and propositions,”
or “a set of descriptions of causal process” (Reynolds, 2007). The combination
and connection of all three parts is conceptualized as grounded theory, as the
data collected gives researcher insight about the knowledge, defines the actual
context are, and describes the interconnectivity process between different
concepts that explains the main and/or
expanding knowledge of the research. Similar to theory is synthesizing of
concepts, which holds together concepts to help describe a process (Bowen
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Grounded theory assumes
a substantive constructive construct by researchers and the formulation of
theories from systematic analysis of empirical data. Grounded theory begins
with inductive data and progressively developing abstract concepts and their
relationships, which bind’s data with its theoretical analysis. This method
consists of systematic strategies to guide qualitative inquiry, particularly,
data analysis. Grounded theory promotes theory construction based on
description, individual narrative patterns, which leads to the development of
fresh ideas for applied theories (Brown et al 2002). The application of
Grounded theory is in multiple stages such as:
Data collection: there
are several methods of collecting data used in grounded theory, such as
semi-structured and unstructured interviewing, participant and none participant
observation and focus groups discussion.
Data analysis and
presentation: In Grounded theory data analysis, characters in forms of figures,
and pictorial charts represent concepts beyond the actualities by looking for
codes, then concepts and finally categories.
Coding: Is a form of
content analysis which examines and conceptualize the key issues among the
“crowd” raw data collected. The researcher becomes sensitive to the
interviewee’s words or phrases that are commonly used. The researcher notes the
words and studies the pattern in its content from their discussion or
interviews. These short phrases which are noted are termed coding.
Concepts: The analysis
of codes with related theme which are grouped together that is of higher
commonality (Allan 2003).
Memoing: Note making
about any theoretical hypotheses from coding.
Categories: This is the
grouping and regrouping of concept to find other commonality called categories
which leads to the emergence of a theory (Allan 2003).
Sorting: As soon as
data from the studies make sense or begins to add up to knowledge, the emerging
sorting is done out of the information accordingly to knowledge.
3.3 Framing Mixed
Method by Grounded theory