4.1.Arduino yield at various voltage requirements. Figure 4.3:

4.1.Arduino (UNO)

Arduino is an open-source based on a
hardware and software. It has been used in thousands of educational and
professional projects. It has 14 advanced data/yield pins (of which 6 can be
utilized as PWM yields), 6 simple data sources, a USB jack, power input, a
reset button and the sky is the limit from there. The microcontroller is of
type ATmega328P, the SRAM value is 2KB, EEPROM is KB and the clocks is 16MHz

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4.2.Servo Motor


Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a technique used to
control the amplitude of digital signal in order to control AC/DC motors or
even used in communication field. It controls the power of the voltage
components by cycling the on and off phases of a signal quickly and thus
varying the value of duty cycle. As a motor this input will be a constant
voltage since the square waves are varying quickly. PWM contribute in
minimizing the loss in power in the circuit. A square waveform of the PWM duty
cycle can be shown in figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2: PWM
(duty cycle)

For better comprehension of PWM these diagrammatic portrayals can
be utilized. These figures speak to the waveforms gotten as yield at various
voltage requirements.

Figure 4.3: Servo motor PWM timing diagram


Servo Motor (MG 90S) Specifications

Its position is defined by the width
of duty cycle of the PWM pulses arriving from Arduino. Shown in Figure 4.4.

This will redirect the mechanical structure towards the target.

Figure 4.4: PWM Period in Servo Motor


Table 4.1: Servo motor


13.4 g



Stall torque



degree- 0.08s/60 degree


4.8 V – 6.0 V

Dead band



4.5: Servo motor



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Figure 4.6: A4TECH PK900H webcam