Based on Geert Hofstede book titled Long-term Orientation (LTO) Cultures and Organizations: Software for the Mind, Third Edition, There are five dimensions of National Culture. Before, it was just a four dimensions but research by Michael Bond and colleagues among students in 23 countries led him in 1991 to adding a fifth dimension. And the five dimensions of national culture are: Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism vs Collectivism, Masculinity vs Feminimity, and Long Term Orientation.
Before i go to explain those 5 natioal culture dimensions and to help me explain about it, i put a chart below about the comparison of 5 National Culture Dimension between two most powerfull country in two largest continent in the world, that is United States from America and Jappan, from Asia. Image source: http://geert-hofstede. com/united-states. html Power Distance: In my brief opinion, power distance is an unequal power share condition between the society in a country. One group of people has a very strong power and the other has the less. Example: It the chart, we can see that United States has score 40 and Japan has 52 of PDI.
The number of 40 from US is a low score, it shows that US is quite equal in power sharing in their society because US has a premise, that is “Liberty for Everyone” Japan has 52 in score, just a bit different from US. Japan has a notion that everyone can be anything what they want as long as they can work hard enough for it. They like have no one in a very top position which can have a strong enough power to have an absolute decision, so thats why any kind of decision made in Japan will be very slow because it has to be approven by people in every level.
Individualism vs Collectivisme In my brief opinion, Individualism is an interdependency between people, or how people can integrate in groups. Example: US has 91 score in individualism, it means that US people is a highly individual person with a strong independent culture. They prefer work alone by their self and in bussines they are also can work with strangers easily because they basically dont really care about who is the person, but its more like what you can do or what have you done.
Japan has 46 score, it shows In this case, Japan is totaly reflecting Asia, because most of Asian love to set them self in a group, and have some harmony on it. And also Japanese also known as the most country when the employees has a very deep loyality to their company. Masculinity In my opinion, Masculinity versus femininity is about the value system refers to genders’s role in society. If some country has a low number of masculinuty, means that country’s values systems refers to feminimity which is the society is caring others and have a good life quality.
But if the country has a high score of masculinity, that is mean the country’s society is driven by competition and thought that be the winner means succsessfull. Example: US has 62 for masculinity, it means that US’s society is much to masculin. They want to have a lot of achievement as their succes standard, they would love to compete and be the winner instead. Japan has 95 for their score, it shows that Japanese is an absolute masculin, their succsess is define by they become the winner or they can be the best in their field or not. So Japanese can easily motivated through competition to show which one the best of them.
Uncertainty Avoidance In my brief opinion, Uncertainty avoidance is how people or groups dealing and preparing for unpredictable situation in future. Example: The score of US’s UAI is 46, its kind of a low score, it means US people is open to any kind of inovation and dont take seriously to something that is not happen yet, they just accept the uncertainty as a consequences of what they do, it affect to US company too, US company ussualy open to any kind of innovation and they love to try or add something new to their product without worrying too much about the consequences.
Japan has a very high of UAI, its 92. As we know, Japan was often hit by natural disaster, so many natural disaster ever happen in Japan, and by now Japan set everything to make sure if someday the natural disaster come, they can prepare at least can decrease a bad impact of it. And for Japanese company, the set all the preparation of risk from uncertain condition before the company start. The fifth dimension: Long-Term Orientation In my brief opinion, long term orientation measure whether people in society has a future-oriented perspective or not.
Example: Its a very low score of US’s LTO, its just 29. Most of US’s bussiness doing their job based on short-term oriented and they have a lot of strategic planning as tools to achieve their goals. Japan’s LTO score is 80, they are a very long term-oriented society which in company, they think that dont run the bussiness for teen years or twelve years, but they will heritate the company to their next generation, so now they should act good to be a good example for their next generation.