1 How is gene regulation

Assignment No 1BIO 201ID: MC170404186QNo:1 How is gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar, and how is it different?Answer: DifferenceEukaryotic regulation is a more complex and often relies on various feedback mechanisms, developmental processes and environmental factors By contrast; prokaryotes regulate entire metabolic pathways rather than regulating each enzyme separately. Bacterial enzymes for a given pathway are adjacent to each other on a cell’s DNA are transcribed into one mRNA this mRNA is called polycistronic mRNA.In eukaryotes gene switched on separately while in prokaryotes all genes are switched on at once.Prokaryotic gene regulation occurs in cytoplasm.While eukaryotic transcription occurs in nucleus and translation in cytoplasm. And also they have different mechanism of Co regulation.1. As there is no nuclear envelope, prokaryotic translation takes place near the genetic material. Eukaryotic translation takes place in the cytoplasm and never inside the nucleus due to the presence of nuclear envelope.2. There are no protein capping and RNA splicing in the prokaryotes. Protein capping and RNA splicing take place before translation in eukaryotes.3. Involved ribosomal subunits in prokaryotic translation are 30S and 50sS. While eukaryotes have 40S and 80S ribosomal subunits.4. In prokaryotic transcription,mRNA is transcribed directly from template DNA molecule. In eukaryotes initially a pre-mRNA is formed and then processed to yield a mature DNA.5.The type of RNA polymerase does not vary with the bacterial type. The type of RNA varies with the organisms.6. DNA is not bound to te histone protein.Therefore, transcription occur directly. A complex of histone proteins and DNA should be accessible, before the transcription.Similarities:Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain structural gene. Both use RNA polymerase.Both involve the process of transcription. Both operate with feedback.Similarity is based on the promoters these are the binding sites for RNA polymerase on DNA to initiate transcription.