A Comparative Study of Possible Preventive Effects of Dietary Ginger on Hepatocarcinoma Rats

2-7 Statistical Analysis

 Standard deviation (STD) and coefficient of
variation (C.V.) were calculated using Excel (2003) Microsoft Windows Operating
System, Windows 7 Home Premium, for the phenol content and biochemical
analyses. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance
(ANOVA) followed by Dunncan Test, using the statistical package for social
science (SPSS) version 16 to compare all treated groups. Values were expressed
as mean ± STD and p?0.05 was considered to be significant (Bailey,



      The results showed
that male rats treated with Nitrosodiethyamine (NDEA) had significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared with negative control rats fed on basal diet. Oral feeding diet incorporated ginger powder at level 0.5, 1.0 and 2 % from basal diet to hepatocarcinogenesis rats for period 3 month induced significant (P < 0.05) reductions of the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP enzymes when compared to the positive control group, in a dose dependent fashion, as recorded in Table (1).                                   Table 1.  Effect of ginger powder (GP) on serum levels of aspartate                aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)   Parameters                                          AST                             ALT                       Groups                                                (U/L)                               (U/L)                                                                                                          ALP         (U/L)                Group (1)                                        29.8 ± 2.41d          39.4 ± 1.93c              Negative control       526.8± 38.46c              Group (2)                                       131.2 ± 7.65a                101.6 ± 5.63a              Hepatocarcinogenesis control 925.8± 21.76a              Group (3)                                       98.6 ± 5.36b                   62.4 ± 3.23b              GP (0.5% )         730.8± 15.81b              Group (4)                                       91.0 ± 5.05b                   60.8 ± 2.85b              GP (1%)                   710.0± 23.0b              Group (5)                                      49.0 ± 3.74c                     38.8 ± 2.2c               GP (2%)                         584.8± 23.55c                             liver enzymes in rats.          Means ± SE with different letters superscripts in the same column are         significant at P < 0.05 using one way ANOVA test.      n= 5 rats/group.     Most of the  3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are metabolized by the liver. Damage to this organ is assessed by a persistent elevated level of its aminotransferases: ALT, ALP and AST (Black 2002). The increase in aminotransferases levels more than three times the upper normal limit indicates a potential liver toxicity (Veillard and Mach 2002; Waters 2005). In the present study, we verified the hepatocellular carcinoma by injection (DENA) increased serum ALT, ALP and AST levels more than three times the normal control. It has been speculated that elevation of serum aminotransferases in (DENA) -treated rats can be attributed to alteration of the hepatocyte cellular membrane with enzyme leakage rather than direct liver injury (Clarke and Mills 2006). Many previous studies investigated the hepatoprotective effects of ginger against liver toxicity induced by ethanol, carbon tetrachloride, bromobenzene and acetaminophen with significant decrease in the levels of ALT, ALP and AST (Yemitan and Izegbu 2006; Ajith et al. 2007; Mallikarjuna et al. 2008; El-Sharaky et al. 2009). In accordance with these studies, concurrent administration of ginger and (NDEA) significantly reduced serum aminotransferases compared to (NDEA) -treated groups. The our result is Consistent with the context El-Sharaky et al., ( 2009) studied the effect of an ethanol extract of ginger on bromobenzene (BB)-induced hepatotoxicity-induced liver injury in male rats. Their results showed that administration of ginger ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) orally about 21 day along with BB produced significant lowering of serum AST, ALT, ALP.   Table 2.  Effect of ginger powder (GP)  on serum albumin (ALB) and total    protein (T. P) in of hepatocellular carcinoma rats.   Parameters groups                            Albumin  µmol/L Total protein (g/dL) Group (1)                               Negative control       4.72 ±0.10a 7.14 ±0.12a Group (2)                               Hepatocellular carcinoma  control 3.02 ± 0.13c 5.96±0.19c Group (3)                             GP (0.5% )         3.32 ± 0.22c 6.18 ±0.36c Group (4)                              GP (1%)                   4.20 ± 0.14b 6.36 ±0.25b Group (5)      GP (2%)                   4.32 ± 0.16ab 6.94 ±0.16ab   Means ± SE with different letters superscripts in the same column are             significant at P < 0.05 using one way ANOVA test.     n= 5 rats/group.     Results in Table (2) showed that rats with Nitrosodiethyamine (NDEA) had significant (p<0.05) decreased in serum level of albumin and total protein (3.02 µmol/L  and 5.96 g/dL, respectively), compared to the normal rats (4.72 µmol/L and 7.14 g/dL, respectively). The effect of ginger powder caused significant (p<0.05) increase in serum level of total protein and albumin as compared to the positive control group. No significant difference between ginger group at level 2% and normal rats. Serum albumin and total proteins were significantly decreased in NDEA -treated rats compared to untreated control group (Tab. 2). This indicates an injury, impaired functions and damage of liver as a result of oral ingestion of NDEA. Also, the decreased levels of albumin and total proteins in the serum indicate impaired excretory and synthetic functions of the liver. This is in agreement with the results of (El-Sharaky et al., 2009).   Table (3): Effect of ginger powder (GP) on serum concentrations of antioxidant enzymes of hepatocellular carcinoma rats.   Parameters groups                           GR (mmol/dL) SOD (U/dL) CAT (U/mg protein) Group (1)                               Negative control         59.0 ±2.00a   77.0 ±2.23a   121.00 ±3.87a Group (2)                               Hepatocellular  carcinoma  control   24.0 ±2.34c   32.40 ±1.69c   50. 2 ±3.16e Group (3)                             GP (0.5% )           25.4 ±2.22c     37.6 ±1.91c   72.20 ±3.55d Group (4)                              GP (1%)                     36.2 ±1.85b     57. 2 ±3.12b   90. 2 ±2.45c Group (5)      GP (2%)                     40.8 ±1.65b     68.8 ±4.21a   104.6 ±3.97b