A over a period. For crops having

variety of measures may lead to the solution of the problem. Here are some of


Crop Rotation

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It is an agricultural practice in
which different crops are grown in same area following a rotation system which
helps in replenishment of the soil. The
crop rotation is a very old technique that has been proven to help
the environment, improve the soil and so many
other things4. Crop rotation helps in productivity by replacing fallow
periods with growing different crops that replenish
soil nutrients. Additionally, it helps to battle erosion.
Rotating crops helps to improve soil stability by alternating between crops
with shallow and deep roots, accordingly. Additionally, annual
crop rotations affect the root structure over a
period. For crops having either tap or fibrous roots, the diversity in the root
structure will enhance the biological, physical and chemical structure of the soil. Better
soil structure creates several macrospores and enables the growth of new root. Improving the soil organic
matter and nutrient pools is also a benefit of crop rotation that results in a better water-holding capacity
of the soil.


Adequate levels of cover on the soil surface
A very effective method of controlling
erosion by both wind and water is to maintain adequate levels of cover on the
soil surface. To achieve this on grazing lands, stock numbers need to be
managed to match the current and expected seasonal conditions. Trees and shrubs
help to reduce wind velocities and so provide protection from wind erosion. The importance of plant cover in controlling water ero-
sion is widely accepted. In the short term, vegetation influ- ences erosion
mainly by intercepting rainfall and protecting the soil surface against the impact of rainfall drops, and by management of row
crops reduces erosion compared with systems involving more frequent or more
extensive tillage. Woody crops reduce water erosion by improving water
infiltra- tion, reducing impacts by water droplets,
intercepting rain and snow and physically stabilizing soil by their roots and
leaf lit- ter. Harvesting of woody plants may be followed by increased erosion.
Forestry clear cutting, especially on steep slopes, of- ten results in a large
increase in water erosion5.


Increase donor funding as well as government
funding and effectiveness

Donor funding reduces the cost of land degradation. This underscores the
role played by donors in land improvement. It also shows the favourable impact
of investment in avoiding land degradation. Education, awareness programs
and guidelines for landowners on how to make their practices sustainable will
help the fight against land degradation.  It will be a promising
perspective if governments is SSA improve the accessibility and level of
technical information on solving land degradation problems using public
consultancies as well as government agencies. Direct government funding for
major landcare projects will be welcome. Unfortunately, current public allocation to land based sectors is only
about 5% on the average. Surely, improvements of governments effectiveness in
SSA may result to reduction of the cost of land degradation and cropland