ABM Treaty Essay

In the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems the United States and the Soviet Union agree that each may have only two ABM deployment areas, so restricted and so located that they cannot provide a nationwide ABM defense or become the basis for developing one. Each country thus leaves unchallenged the penetration capability of the others retaliatory missile forces.. Both Parties agreed to limit qualitative improvement of their ABM technology. The ABM Treaty was signed at Moscow May 26, 1972, and ratified by the US Senate August 3, 1972.

Salt I: An agreement signed in 1972 by U. S. President Richard M. Nixon and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev after the first round of Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT I), held from 1969-72. It consisted of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and an Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. Salt 2: agreement dealing with limitations and guidelines for nuclear weapons. The treaty, which never formally went into effect, proved to be one of the most controversial U. S. -Soviet agreements of the Cold War.

The SALT-II agreement was the result of many nagging issues left over from the successful SALT-I treaty of 1972. In June 1979, Carter and Brezhnev met in Vienna and signed the SALT-II agreement. The treaty basically established numerical equality between the two nations in terms of nuclear weapons delivery systems. It also limited the number of MIRV missiles (missiles with multiple, independent nuclear warheads). In truth, the treaty did little or nothing to stop, or even substantially slow down, the arms race.

Nevertheless, it met with unrelenting criticism in the United States. The treaty was denounced as a “sellout” to the Soviets, one that would leave America virtually defenseless against a whole range of new weapons not mentioned in the agreement. Even supporters of arms control were less than enthusiastic about the treaty, since it did little to actually control arms. Debate over SALT-II in the U. S. Congress continued for months. In December 1979, however, the Soviets launched an invasion of Afghanistan.

The Soviet attack effectively killed any chance of SALT-II being passed, and Carter ensured this by withdrawing the treaty from the Senate in January 1980. SALT-II thus remained signed, but unratified. During the 1980s, both nations agreed to respect the agreement until such time as new arms negotiations could take place. ‘Star Wars’ Programme: On March 23, 1983, President Reagan proposed the creation of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), an ambitious project that would construct a space-based anti-missile system. This program was immediately dubbed “Star Wars. The SDI was intended to defend the United States from attack from Soviet ICBMs by intercepting the missiles at various phases of their flight. This system would tip the nuclear balance toward the United States. The Soviets feared that SDI would enable the United States to launch a first-strike against them. Although work was begun on the program, the technology proved to be too complex and much of the research was cancelled by later administrations. The idea of missile defense system would resurface later as the National Missile Defense. Detente: is the easing of strained relations

Henry Kissinger: Henry A. Kissinger was sworn in on September 22, 1973, as the 56th Secretary of State, a position he held until January 20, 1977. He also served as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs from January 20, 1969, until November 3, 1975. At present, Dr. Kissinger is Chairman of Kissinger Associates, Inc. , an international consulting firm. Linkage: SOiet union and US cooperate US would accept.. Nixon Doctrine: President Richard Nixon announces that henceforth the United States will expect its Asian allies to tend to their own military defense.

The Nixon Doctrine, as the president’s statement came to be known, clearly indicated his determination to “Vietnamize” the Vietnam War. The Nixon Doctrine marked the formal announcement of the president’s “Vietnamization” plan, whereby American troops would be slowly withdrawn from the conflict in Southeast Asia and be replaced by South Vietnamese troops. Over the course of his first term in office, Nixon held true to this doctrine by withdrawing a substantial portion of America’s fighting forces from Vietnam.

In 1973, the United States and North Vietnam signed a peace treaty formally bringing the Vietnam War to a conclusion. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces crushed the South Vietnamese army and succeeded in reuniting the divided country under a communist regime. My part: According to historian F. Halliday the coldwar can be explained by the developments in the United States and the developing world. The south and west United States became important because the aerospace and military industry was located there.

Since this area had been traditionally the home of extreme conservative politics, high military spending, military intervention in the developing countries and a strong anti-communist this area provided the base for the emergence of the New Right New Right is a coalition of Republicans and neo-conservative Demcrats) dominated Congress and were allied to the Pentagon and arms manufacturers. They claied that since Vietnam the US military strength had declined with about 7 million people employed in the armaments industry a big increase in military spending was seen as a way to temporarily halt the economic downturn.

Halliday’s explanation is not common as most historians have seen the Soviet’s Unions military intervention of Afghanistan and other events in the developing world as being mre important that changes in US domestic policies. Poland The 2nd cold war became even more tense when the Polish gov’t imposed martial law in an attempt to stop the growth of the independent Solidarity trade union trough movement Martial Law: is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis. Solidarity is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on 31 August 1980.

It was the first non–communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. Solidarity reached 9. 5 million members before its September 1981 In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers’ rights and social change. [4] The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of political repression, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with the union.

Moscow put pressure on the Polish leadership for a tough response because they feared that if Poland was able to develop a more democratic system other east European states might follow and also they feared that the people of the SOvietUnion might try to dismantle the power of leadership in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union The USSR still saw Poland as a important pat of the Warsaw Pact and they felt militarily vulnerable in Europe athough the.. ead packet highlighted The USA responded by imposing economic and trade sanctions on both Poland and the Soviet Union which they wanted west European states to apply as well. This conflicted with the interest of the states as some still wanted detente and trade with Soviet Union. In particular the natural gas pipeline that carried gas from the USSR to the western European states. Also some west European states were alarmed by the Star Wars project and the US blaming the Soviet Union for all world problems. This led the us to increase its support of so-called reliable… read rest Soviet domestic policies

In the years1982-85, the Soviet Union was going through a tense political transition After Brezhnev died Andropov succeeded him and afterhe died chernenko died and this coincided with economic problems as the technological gap between the Soviet Union and the westwidenend. The attempt to keep up with the US military might have weakened its economy as its economy wasn’t where it should have been. The new soviet Leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, concluded that the USSR could no longer afford to follow each nuclear escalation made by the US