Abstract = 70) completed Beliefs About Language

AbstractThe present study addresses the differences andsimilarities among students’ beliefs about language learning. The participantstudents (n = 70) completed Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI)and a demographic information questionnaire. Learning a second languageupgrades the procurement methods that can be connected later to learn extradialects also and it turns into a thousand times less demanding to acquireanother language. Learning a second language increases the innovativeness of ayoungster. It develops self-assurance and is viewed as great and adroit inPakistani society.

As indicated by the consequences of our study a dominantpart of the average citizens believe that figuring out how to speak English inan excellent accent is more vital than to take in its scripted frame. It isdominatingly believed by the surveyed students that one should begin taking inthe second language from his/her early youth, that is, critical period. Acommon perception is that in the early day’s ones picking and retainingcapacity is significantly higher as compared to adulthood.

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Many individualssurmise that it is a smart approach to build up a sizable vocabulary in thelanguage to be learnt. Bilingualism activities your cerebrum, moves you tothink and lifts your critical thinking abilities. Bilingual understudies tendto score higher on state sanctioned tests than monolingual understudiesparticularly in the zones of vocabulary, perusing and science. There are manyadvantages of learning a second language. Studies have demonstrated thatindividuals who are bilingual are better at assignments that requiremulti-entrusting and consideration centring than monolinguals. It encouragesthe child to assemble culturally diverse companionships, more extensiveprofession openings, energizing travel experiences and a profound insight tohow others see the world.

IntroductionRichardson (1996) defined beliefs as psychologicallyheld understandings, premises, or propositions about the world that are held tobe true. Beliefs are central constructs in every discipline which deals withhuman behaviour and learning. Beliefs help individuals to define and understandthe world and themselves, and they are instrumental in defining behaviour. Largerpart of the general population feel that knowing more than a solitary dialectbuilds the likelihood of landing great positions.

The competition foremployment can be exceptional and it is extremely vital to discover methods forseparating yourself from different candidates. Monolingual created nations likethe Unites States and the UK consider the expertise of knowing various dialectsexceptionally amazing and that is a noteworthy motivation behind why numerousAsians are offered occupations there. A nearby case study from the region ofKPK is that each child there learns no less than 3 dialects and at most 5dialects including the primary language. Consider the case of a Pukhtoon childwhose primary language is Pashto. His procedure of taking in various dialectsbegins from taking in Urdu and Hindko from the impact of the general public.English must be learnt as a piece of the school educational programs. Thirdly,due to the Afghans who have sought refuge in the KPK, children in Peshawar arealso exposed to Persian.

 TheoreticalFrameworkThis study uses a mixture of combining quantitativeand qualitative methods which refers to the mixed method. Using the combinationof qualitative and quantitative method allows for a more complete analysis ofthe research problem (Greene et al., 1989).

Many studies have found thestrengths and limitations of mixed research. Migiro and Magangi (2011)evaluated that mixed method research could answer broader and more completeresearch questions. It can also allow more insight that might be missed when onlya single method is employed. However, mixed methods also have limitations e.g. theresearcher has to learn how to combine qualitative and quantitative methodappropriately hence it is more time consuming.

A survey method has been used in this study in orderto collect data. Considering the research questions, we used a standardisedsurvey (BALLI) to 70 high school students from Super Nova School.Questionnaires are a commonly used tool toinvestigate beliefs and language-learning strategies. However, this methodoffers several advantages and disadvantages. Tabulating a large number ofresponses is possible with the use of a questionnaire. It can be seen thatusing a questionnaire is an easier way to collect data and is less invasive ofthe respondents’ privacy. However, questionnaires also have limitations. Wenden(1987) mentioned that questionnaire cannot articulate participants’ cognitivethoughts as they don’t allow them to express their beliefs in their own words.

Thus, in this study, we decided to obtain data froma survey method. Data will be collected from the most widely used questionnaireto investigate beliefs and learning strategies: Horwitz’s (1987) beliefs aboutlanguage learning inventory.MethodologyThe Horwitz (1987) Beliefs about Language LearningInventory (BALLI), a 34-item survey instrument, was used to collect data fromhigh school students studying in a private educational institute in Islamabad.Data analysis using frequency statistics showed that generally, studentsrecognized the existence of foreign language aptitude and placed heavy emphasison impeccable pronunciation, vocabulary acquisition, the benefits of practice,and an immersion approach to language learning. The majority was found to behighly motivated to acquire English as a second language. It was pleasing tonote that a large number of Pakistani students were confident about theirability to learn the language. This study was conducted among the students of SuperNova School, Islamabad.

The duration of the study was 2 weeks, that is, from1st January 2018 to 15th January 2018. It is a descriptive, cross sectionalstudy for which the subjects were chosen by convenient sampling technique. HighSchool students studying in a private educational institution were recruited tobe in the study. All students had an opportunity to be selected in the study inaccordance with the random sampling technique used. It is important to notethat no exclusion criteria were employed.A standardized questionnaire, “Beliefs aboutLanguage Learning Inventory” was used to analyse  the views about second language acquisitionamongst students. At present, the prime data-collection instrument used for researchinglearner beliefs about language learning is the 34-item Likert-scale BALLI,prepared by Horwitz in 1985 to use on her foreign language teacher trainingcourse.

This standardized questionnaire, the BALLI, has been widely used indifferent contexts and cultures to evaluate students’ beliefs. For example, inIran (Ghobadi & khodadady, 2011), China (Zhang & Cui, 2010), Hong Kong(Peaccok, 2001), Hungary (Rieger, 2009), Malaysia (Nikitina & Furuoka, 2006),Thailand (Fujiwara, 2011), Vietnam (Bernat, 2004). DataAnalysisThis research analyzes different opinions from avariety of students from SuperNova School Islamabad. The data is gatheredmostly from questionnaires, that are themed to test the willingness, orotherwise, the motivation of students to learn any foreign language such asenglish, as well as their general perception of their varied ability to do so,some themes that were observed as follows ·        Environmental advantages, that is, theimportance of exposure while learning new languages such as learning at a youngage  (and thus greater ability to learnand remember), company of native speakers (and thus greater exposure to moresubtle language nuances of words and sounds) , were readily apparent to thesestudents.·        The ability to learn foreign languagewas seen as an ability ingrained in some people , as students answeredpositively to questions that implied “Is the ability to learn a foreignlanguage a measure of intelligence”, and “some people have the ability to learna lot of foreign languages quickly”.·        The perception that learning foreignlanguages is a skill, (with some people naturally having more of it than others), persists in the sense that the students think it gets successively easier tolearn more and more foreign languages. This idea persists in the responses tothe question “Language learning is different from other school subjects”.·        The other factors, such as practice andeffort were also given more importance, without any particular correlation tothe aforementioned ability factors, which shows that ability does notnecessarily counterbalance the importance of effort.

·        Even though students reported beingself-conscious while speaking the foreign language, they also gave the clarityof accent some priority. And they expressed their desire to go talk to a personspeaking the foreign language, in order to practise. This highlights therepressed nature of the students in relation to their foreign language speakingskills.·        Pakistanis were thought to give extraimportance to the ability to speak a foreign language, but they didn’t thinkthey had any special ability to learn them, (most of the answers were”undecided”).  ·        The respondents were rather harsh on newspeakers, saying that mistakes should not be allowed, in fear that they will bedifficult to deal with later on.

Though they allowed guessing unknown words.·        Speaking and understanding the languagewas seen as easier than reading and writing it, but the students saw no largedifficulty gap between understanding a language and speaking a language.·        The students disagreed with learningmethodology using grammar rules, giving more importance to learning bytranslation, and learning new vocabulary. ConclusionAfter a lot of contemplation and study of the datacollected, we finally concluded that people in Pakistan have a very contrastingapproach when it comes to earning a second language may it be English or anyother for that matter. According to the statistics a majority of the people arewilling to learn English because it would supposedly open a window of life changingopportunities. This trend is usually associated with Pakistanis.

However, when asked about whether or notbilingualism should start at an early age, most people were in favour ofteaching a secondary language from a young age before their critical periodends as at that time the child has an impressive capability to take in a lot ofinformation and process it. It was agreed by an astonishing margin thatlearning to speak a foreign language adeptly is far different from learning itsgrammar and format. In order to catch up with the modern standards of Englishspeaking in the world, we would have to take drastic measures to ensure that wekeep pace with the ever-changing world.

For that to come about, we would haveto change our language teaching standards in our primary schools with the chieffocus towards public and remotely located schools.This would have to happen as quickly as possibleotherwise the fast paced world would leave us behind and it might become toohard for us to catch up with them again.  References ·        M.

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New York: Basic Books·        Nikitina L., Furuoka F. ( 2006) Re-examiningHorwitz’s beliefs about language learning (BALLI) in the Malaysian context.Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 3(2): 209-19.

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