Abstract— Tele-immersion is an advanced form of virtual reality that will
allow users in different places to interact in real time in a shared simulated
environment. This technology causes users to feel as if they were in the same
room. The tele-immersion
technology uses a “tele-cubicle” which is equipped with large
screens, scanners, sensors, and cameras. The tele-cubicles are linked together
in real-time so that they form one larger cubicle. Through the virtual
environment, participants are able to interact with other group members. Also,
virtual objects and data can be passed through the walls between participants,
and placed on the shared table in the middle for viewing. Tele-immersion has
the potential to significantly impact educational, scientific,
manufacturing, and many other fields.
large screens, sensors, cameras, real-time
3D HUMAN AVATAR can be developed using the
concept of Teleimmersion , which is a technology that will be implemented with
internet2 it will enable users in different geographic locations to come
together and interact in a simulated holographic environment. Users will feel
as if they are actually looking, talking and meeting with each other face to
face in the same place, even though they may be miles apart physically. In a
teleimmersive environment, computer recognized the presence and movements of
individuals as well as physical and virtual objects. They can then track these
people and nonliving objects, and project them in a realistic way across many
The three steps to
constructing a holographic environment are:
The computer recognizes the presence and movements of people and
The computer tracks those images.
The computer projects those images on a strereoimmersive surface.
3D reconstruction for teleimmersion is performed using stereo, which
mean two or more cameras rapid sequential shots of the same objects,
continuously performing distance calculations, and projecting them into the
computer. Simulated environment to replicate real time movements. By combining
cameras and Internet telephony, video conferencing has allowed real time exchange
of more information than ever, without physically bringing each person into one
COMPONENTS OF A HOLOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT
Teleimmersive displays of earlier days
required user to wear special goggles and a head device that tracked the view
point of the user looking at the screen. At the other end, the people, who
appeared as 3d image, where tracked with and array of 8 ordinary video cameras
while three other video cameras captured real life patterns projected in each
room to calculate distance. This enabled the proper depth to the recreated on
the screen. So if an observer move here head to the left, she could see the
corresponding image that would be seen if she were actually in the room with
the person on the screen.
Scientists are developing new
technologies support this type of communication. Apart of these new technologies is:
A. Telecubical: Users will communicate by using this technology. It consist of a
Stereo immersive desk surface and two stereoimmersive wall surfaces. These
three display surfaces join to form a virtual conference table in the centre.
This will allow the realistic inclusion of teleimmersion into the work
environment, as it will take up the usual amount of desk space.
B. Internet2: This will replace the current internet infrastructure. It is a
consortium made up of the US government,
academia (180universities) that has been formed for creating tomorrow’s
internet. This new network will have a higher bandwidth and speeds that are
1000 times faster than today’s internet. This high bandwidth, high speed
C. network is necessary to
transfer the large amounts of data that teleimmersion will produce.
issues: Network bandwidth required
to make 3D-human avatar work is one of the main concerns of this new
technology. It is estimated that as much as 1.2 gigabits per sec will be needed
for future high quality effects. This is much higher than the average home connection
bandwidth. The exact amount of bandwidth needed for each scene depends on the
complexity of the background. With time, the number of megabits used will fall as advanced compression techniques are
established. A new network called the Grid could be a solution. The Grid will
use distributed computing.
There are not enough supercomputers to ideal
with the enormous amount of data that will rush through the net in the future.
As a solution, new network will connect their PCs so they can share processing
power and hard disk space. They will be locked into a grid-effectively creating
technologies: stereo immersive displays would
have to present a clear view of the scenes being transmitted
F. Haptic sensors: would allow to touch
projections as if they were real.
G. Desktop supercomputers: would perform the
trillions of calculations needed to create a holographic environment. A network
of computers that share power could also possibly support these environments.
Fig 1:Views of cameras Fig 2:Teleimmersed
HOW TELEIMMERSION WORKS
The apparatus consists of:
desk surface (stereo immersive desk)
two wall surfaces
two oblique front stereo projection sources
(might be integrated with projectors)
As illustrated (in fig 3) the
three display surfaces meet each other in the corner to make a desk. At the
moment four tele-cubicles can be joined to form a large virtually shared space.
The walls appear to be transparent passage for other cubicles during this
linkage, and the desk surfaces join to form a large table in the middle.
Objects at each place can be shared for viewing across the common desk and
through walls can be seen the colleagues at other end and their environment.
Fig 3. Working of tele cubicle
The hectic efforts in this
regard initiated a project called Office of the Future. In this project the
ideas which were discussed in the July, 1997 meeting coined together. The
approach was to use the advanced techniques in computer vision field to capture
the visible objects in the office like furniture, people, etc. The capture
images were then reconstruct and transmitted over the network to the other
remote site for display. In this
simplified scheme for how a future teleimmersion scheme might work, two
partners separated by 1,000 miles collaborate on a new engine design.
Following the flow of information
teleimmersion depends on intense data processing at each end of a connection,
mediated by high performance network
A. From the sender: Parallel
processors accept visual inputs from the cameras and reinterpret the scene as a
3-Dimensional computer model.
B. To the receiver: Specific rendering of remote
people and places are synthesized from the model as it is received to match the
point of view of each eye of a user. The whole process repeats many times a
second to keep up with the user head motion.
C. Generating the 3-D Image: 1.An
array of cameras views people and their surroundings from different angle .
Each camera generates an image from its point of view many times in a second.
Fig 4:Array of
Each set of the images taken at a given
instant is sorted into subsets of overlapping trios of images.. From each trio
of images, a “disparity map” is calculated, reflecting the degree of
variation among the images at all points in the Disparity map visual field. The disparities are then
analyzed to yield depths that would
account for the differences between what each camera sees. These depth values
are combined into a “bas relief” depth map of the scene.
All the depth maps are combined into a single
viewpoint independent sculptural model of the scene at a given moment. Process of
combining the depth maps providemaps opportunities. Final View for removing spurious points and
and virtual reality
A. Reality: Teleimmersion
may sound like virtual reality but there are major differences between the two
technologies. While virtual reality allows you to move in a computer-generated
3-D environment, teleimmersion can only create
a 3d environment that you can see but not interact with. However,
interaction is possible by combining the two technologies.
Teleimmersive holographic environment have a
number of applications. video game free of joysticks, friends in a shared
holographic room,Doctors and Soldiers could use teleimmersion to train in a simulated environment, and so on
The list of
applications is large and varied, and one thing is crystal clear- this
technology will significantly affect the educational, scientific and medical
When tele-immersion becomes common place, it
will probably enable a wide variety of important applications.In fact,
tele-immersion might come to be seen as real competition for air travel–unlike
videoconferencing. Although few would claim that teleimmersion will be
absolutely as good as “being there” in the near term, it might be
good enough for business meetings, professional consultations, training
sessions, trade show exhibits and the like. Business travel might be replaced
to a significant degree by tele-immersion in 10 years. Undoubtedly
tele-immersion will pose new challenges as well.. According to one of the
researchers of Tele- Immersion Team, Defanti, “such technology would enable
researchers to collaborate in fields such as architecture, medicine and
astrophysics and airplane design. The beauty of it is that it allows widely
separated people to share a complex virtual experience. You might be testing a
vehicle,” says Defanti. “You want to smash it into the wall at 40
miles per hour and put your head by the cylinder block. Say there’s a guy from
Sweden and you have to prove to him that it doesn’t move by 3 centimeters or
more. That kind of stuff works.”In the years to some it will be one of the
major developments. You could visit each other environment, but one thing which
is far behind to achieve is the physical contact of individuals at each end.
So it can be summarized as:
Collaboration at geographically distributed
sites in real-time
Synthesis of networking and media technologies
Full integration of Virtual Reality into the