Abstract:Protecting multimedia data fromcomputer attackers continues to grow in importance. Due to tremendous evolutionin Internet technologies and multimedia, content copying has become quiteeffortless. In the case of preventing unauthorized access to digital photos,ensuring compliance with copyright regulations, or guaranteeing the integrityof a video teleconference, all multimedia applications require expanded securityin the presence of skilled intruders.
Specifically, as more and more files arepreserved on disk the requirement to provide secure storage has become moreimportant. This paper provides a survey on multimedia database content securitybased on confidentiality, integrity, availability, and performance. Keywords: multimedia data;confidentiality; integrity; availability; performance. 1. Introduction In the recent worldeveryone is dealing with multimedia.
Everywhere there is multimedia around us.Due to the evolution of information technology the importance of multimedia hasenhanced. So, this is the reason that we have to structure the multimediainformation in a structured order so that we may have information accesswhenever we require. The multimedia data is not protected from unauthorizedaccess. So, to cater for these security issues possible measures should beentaken e.
g. Data Analysis, Storage Management and Data Integrity should bechecked to see how much the data in multimedia database is secure. While doing Data Analysis, Meta datamanagement has to be done in order to do style matching.
For StorageManagement, the issues to be handled are access criteria for multimedia datatypes, and special index development. Data integrity checking includesmaintenance of data by keeping data quality, controlling concurrency, andmultimedia updates recovery. To keep multimedia databases secure and safe; is adifficult process e.g. command and control applications. In order to have asystem secure completely and end to end security is needed. There should be100% secure multimedia database management system, safe networks, secure middlewares and safe applications 1.
Everyone deals with multimedia at every walk of lives. Wework with multimedia and are encircled by multimedia. Due to the headway ofmodern computer and information technology, multimedia systems play more andmore impact on our lives. Therefore, itis more challenging fact how to organize and structure these huge multimediainformation so that we can get information easily at any point of time. To doso, multimedia database is a tool desired to manage and maintain hugemultimedia objects, which consist of texts, graphics, animations, video,sounds, music etc. Multimedia applications often address file managementinterfaces at different levels of abstraction such as hypertext application,audio editor, audio-video apportionment service count on the real strength ofmultimedia database and its structure 2.
Due to the recent developments in computer networkingtechnology, distribution of digital multimedia content through the internet isenormous. However, the increased number of digital documents, multimediaprocessing tools, and the worldwide availability of Internet access has createda very suitable medium for copyright fraud and uncontrollable distribution ofmultimedia content. A major requirement now is to protect the intellectual propertyof multimedia content in multimedia networks.
There are number of data typesthat can be characterized as multimedia data types. These are typically theelements for the building blocks of generalized multimedia environments,platforms, or integrating tools. The basic types can be described as text, images,audio, video and Graphic objects 3. 1.1. Multimedia Data: The objects of Multimedia data include texts, images,graphics, animations, video, sound recordings, music, and so on which areconverted from different formats into digital media. 1.
2. Database and MultimediaDatabase: Database composes a controlled collection of data related toa given entity, and a Multimedia database is a controlled collection ofmultimedia data. Therefore multimedia can be defined as a technique thatcombines a variety of media items to make the information more attractive andenables it to communicate in variety of ways.
They deal with such a huge amountof data which a simple DBMS is inadequate to deal with 4. 1.3. Security of multimediadatabases: For altering and browsing the multimedia databases has a greatsecurity issue.
While a person is editing or browsing a link; he ought to beproperly checked that if he is authorized to do it or not, for instance filmsare altered and a few segments of movies are erased, so, it ought to be takeninto consideration properly to cater for security issues in this sense. So also, multimedia transaction is another issue; in whichthe information from different locations is conveyed and is combined or updatedor edited at the same time. Inference problem is also one of the major issuesin MMDBMS that suggested in this paper in which the user can see even thoseobjects to which he is not authorized 1 4. 2. related work: (Yu C. and Brandenburg T., 2011)5 discusses recentmultimedia database applications and some issues in teaching and learning likedata availability, file format and size, data storage and retrieval, searchengines and skills of teachers that educators may have into their classroomsduring usage of multimedia data.(W.
Madiha, et al., 2012) 1 studied some typical importantsecurity issues. An experiential analysis has been done for measuring thefrequency, percentage and criticality of the issues such as Security andPrivacy issues related to MMDBMS. The access control, security policies,security architecture and privacy problems which are being emerged fromMultimedia Data mining and paper (Roslina, etal, 2015) 6 talk about thesecurity of multimedia systems using access control policies. An access controlspace represents the permission assignment state of a subject or role. (Thuraisingham B., 2007) 7 Explain the problems associated with querying a highlevel of multimedia data types.Problems were identified by examining multimedia data objectsby applying certain conditions to those data.
The author provided a model basedon conceptual inquiry, where there was no criterion for Search in searchengines. The author also suggested some of the main factors and challengesfaced by the multimedia frameworks as follows:-Multimedia query- Knowledge representation- Mysterious accession- Extraction- Storage and- Matching (Kosch H., Döller M., 2009) 8 Shows the evolution ofMultimedia Database Systems and derives a list of issues such as MultimediaIndexing, Querying and Presentation. (Er.
Shilpi Harnal, et al., 2016) 9 Explained aboutmultimedia supported cloud environment, necessity and challenges in such anenvironment for rich multimedia communication and computation. They did asurvey of different multimedia cloud computing architectures, security andother issues and possible solutions proposed by various authors. (Chun-Ting Huang, 2011) 10 Conducted a detailed survey on recentmultimedia storage security research activities in association with cloudcomputing.
They concentrated on four hot research areas which are dataintegrity, data confidentiality, access control, and data manipulation in theencrypted domain.( Swapnali More, et al., 2016) 11 Proposed a secure andefficient privacy preserving public auditing scheme. This auditing scheme makesuse of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm for encryption, Secure HashAlgorithm-2 (SHA-2) for integrity check and RSA signature for digital signaturecalculation.
(Prassanna J, et al., 2015)12 Analyzed an innovative mechanism thattechnically and systematically logging any data access stored in the cloudalong with well supported auditing mechanism using Cloud InformationAccountability (CIA) framework. It utilized the homomorphic linearauthenticator (HLA) and stochastic masking to promise that the third partyaudit would not be able to discover any information about the user’s preciousdata or informational content stored on the cloud data storage.
To focus exclusively on protect multimedia data part. Data ofvarious types over the cloud, from the point of academic world and business.Number of studies showing the need of security in cloud computing especiallyfor the multimedia content storage and the various proposed techniques toenhance security. 3. Multimedia databasecontent: There are several of data types in use today that can be describedas multimedia data types. These are the components utilized for building othergeneralized multimedia environments, platforms, or integrating tools.
Multimedia Database generally holds the following multimediacomponents like:Text, graphics, animation, sounds, video etc 13. 3.1 TextIn multimedia applications, text is being utilized. Reasonis that a longer text reading is difficult by the smaller screen resolution. Atthe same moment, when a piece of information fails to communicate to othersusing other multimedia elements, text is obligatory.
Text should be used onlysuch cases where it able to eliminate possible information ambiguity.3.2 GraphicsIt is a very powerful multimedia component. The realstrength of graphics is to maintain context. Graphics are discrete concepts.The user himself determines viewing moments and period. In this way, graphicsare very appropriate for individual studying and analyzing of connections.
Thecombination with text is ideal because each is discrete representations.Graphics approve greater interpretation than the image and can be used betterfor the aid of mental model.3.
3 ImageThe image is very much related by its photorealisticrepresentation to the concrete contents. User’s mood may be motivated by using images. For this situation, themix of picture with sound will be especially effective. 13. 3.4 AnimationAnimation is likewise an element in multimedia database.It can be defined as the change in the characteristics of an object over aperiod of time. Animation files need more storage space than graphic filesinvolving single image.
3.5 SoundSound as music or speech has astrength to invoke emotions.Music can stimulate moods positively in reviving or relaxation of mind andbody; while sound as noise facilitates to irritate people. The combination ofsound with animation will really have a realistic impact on users. 3.6 VideoVideo is the most capable of all the multimediacomponents. It depicts the real world events. It’s going to also help to graspthe more delicate and complicated situation/ thoughts into minds Ibid.
4. Techniques to enhancethe security of multimedia data: Information security has traditionally been ensured withEncryption techniques. Generally encryption techniques,Such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), the AdvancedEncryption Standard (AES), the Rivest, Shamir and Adelman (RSA)algorithm, the Triple DES (3DES), and theInternational Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) andScalable encryption algorithm (SEA) 13, work on bitstream of data input without regard to their nature of application. In otherWords, the encryption proceeds without distinguishing the input data as either:audio, video, text, or graphics.
TABLE1. CLASSIFICATION OF STANDARD ENCRYPTION METHODS, ADAPTED FROM 14 15 Encryption algorithm Basic operations Advantages Drawbacks DES XOR, Substitution and Permutation Suitable for High speed and low cost hardware/software Implementations. But Small 56 bit key size makes it Undesirable.
3-DES Comprises 3 DES keys Efficient and susceptible to chosen plaintext, but memory and time Requirement is more. AES Sub bytes, Shift rows, Mix column And add round key. Very good performance in hardware and software implementations, Low Memory Requirement. IDEA XOR, Addition and Multiplication Security level is high when compared to DES. RSA Primality test, Modulus, Euler’s totient Function, Co prime and Multiplicative inverse It is Public key System. Secured but speed is lower, when compared to Symmetric key systems SEA XOR,S-Box, Word rotation, bit Rotation and modular addition Extremely simple but can be used only in embedded applications where Resources are limited. When the Multimedia data is not a real timedata, it can be treated as a regular binary stream and above mentionedconventional techniques can be applied. When varieties of constraints arepresent, it is difficult to accomplish security for multimedia data.
5. Criteria forevaluationBy using security techniques of multimedia data manygoals can be achieved, these goals can be either all achieved at the same timein one application, or only one of them. 5.1 ConfidentialityFrom a security point of view, guaranteeingsecrecy suggests that nobody approaches information unless particularlyapproved.
Distinctive frameworks control this approval procedure in differentways. The initial phase in approving access to data is to appropriatelyrecognize clients by means of verification. The capacity framework mustcharacterize the methods for a client to be legitimately distinguished beforeobtaining entrance, and afterward having properly recognized a client, theframework must enable access to just indicate information related with thatclient. Appropriate approval to get to the capacity framework does not inferaccess to the whole framework; indeed, the differentiating rule of minimumbenefit is for the most part connected. Information proprietors must, be thatas it may, have a technique for enabling others to get to data when properthrough an assignment of approval conspire 16.To avoid unapproved access to data,confidentiality also implies that the system must encrypt data and, hence,requires either clients or servers to apply cryptographic keys. Deciding howthe keys are overseen has significantly affected the overall design – whetherconveyed by a concentrated gathering server or by singular documentproprietors, the impacts of key administration on execution and client comfortmust be examined. Cryptographic operations are regularly the mostcomputationally costly part of getting to safely put away information sochoosing where and how the cryptographic keys are connected is essential 17.
An additional critical discussionconcerning key management involves how keys are revoked. Once the systemdetermines to revoke a particular user’s access, the user’s keys must no longerwork within the system, or at a minimum not allow access to future versions ofthe files. The cost associated with revoking a user manifests itself in the re encryptioneffort required to secure confidentiality. It is not possible to physicallyrevoke a user’s keys to prevent that user’s ability to perform operations sincecopies could have been produced, so the system must render all keys of arevoked user obsolete and re-encrypt all of the data with a new key.
Aresulting argument then turns, once again, to a tradeoff between security andperformance. There are two primary methods for securing the data after key revocation:Lazy revocation and aggressive revocation.When using lazy revocation the system does not re-encrypt the data that therevoked user previously had authorization to access until the next valid userattempts to access the file. This essentially defrays the cost over time, butit leaves data vulnerable to the revoked user for an unspecified period oftime.
Bycontrast, aggressive revocation immediately re-encrypts all files that therevoked user could potentially access. Once re encrypted, new keys must bedistributed to all personnel who are affected by the changed encryption (addingadditional weight to the key distribution scheme); clearly this option requirestime. Lazy re-encryption sacrifices a measure of security to save time whileaggressive revocation sacrifices time to improve security 18. 5.2 AvailabilityAvailability considers in terms of time, space, andrepresentation. Information needs to be available to an authorized user withinan acceptable time period, without monopolizing the available storage space,and in an understandable representation. A system cannot allow an adversary toprevent authorized access to information via a denial-of-service attack. It isimportant to note that the goals of availability conflict to a degree with thoseof confidentiality, because ensuring confidentiality often requires increasedtime to access data or offering access only within a limited environment 16.
5.3 IntegrityIntegrity is a broadly based topic that includesmaintaining data consistency in the face of both accidental and maliciousattacks on data. The resulting expectation is that when a user accesses storedinformation, no data has been subjected to unauthorized modification.
Manysystems enforce integrity by ensuring that data comes from the expected source.For stored data, the discussion of integrity implies that files have not beenchanged on the disk 19.Integrity enforcement procedures fall into two categories:data modification prevention and data modification detection.Similar to confidentiality, modification preventionrequires users to receive authorization prior to changing files and requiresthat files are only changed in an approved manner. Integrity differs fromconfidentiality in that confidentiality is only worried about whether or notdata has been compromised, whereas integrity includes ensuring the correctnessof the data. Detection schemes generally assume that attacks are inevitable andthat there must be suitable ways to assess any damage done, recover from thedamage, and apply lessons learned to future prevention mechanisms 20.
5.4 PerformanceThe level of security and the system performance oftenconflict. In order to provide the requisite layers of security to avoid harmfulattacks, the system performance suffers. The two objectives of an efficientsystem and a secure environment intrinsically conflict.
Each extra safetyeffort requires computationally costly preparing that takes away from theframework’s capacity to perform different operations; all safety efforts areoverhead .for the system. Each of the assessed stockpiling technique attemptsto minimize the performance cost associated with the particular measures of thesystem.
The most prevailing performance cost is associated with encryption dueto its computationally expensive nature 21. 6. Conclusions Because of the exponential development of onlineinformation and transformation in multimedia technology, multimedia datacopying has become quite easy. So provision of security and protection to thedata stored in the cloud has become inevitable.
In this paper, conducted asurvey of various aspects involved in multimedia data security and contentprotection techniques. By analyzing the related work, we can identify the gapsthat need to be addressed in order to achieve more protection to the content.Some of the previous works focus on providing protection to only one type ofmultimedia data. Many methods use image processing and signal processingtechniques which are computationally intensive, time consuming and involve highcomplexity. There is a need for a simple, single practical solution formultimedia content protection for various types such as audio, video and imagesbased on copy detection which will be quite fast, storage efficient, involvingless complexity, with low communication and computational costs yet scalable tolarge scale databases. Acknowledgment:I would like to thank GOD and my husband and my beautifuldaughter and my family for their constant support during this work.
I wouldalso like to thank my Guide Dr.Nizar for his support and encouragement tocomplete my work.