Abstract: Increasing fuel prices andpollution are the major demerits of Internal Combustion (IC) engines. Alsopresently the demand for fuel has increased and in the nearby future, shortageof fossil fuels is being expected due to the ever growing consumption. So needof alternative energy has become necessary. Hence aim of this paper is to design and fabricate an electricallyoperated engine, i.
e. Electromagnetic engine. Moreover solar energy is used asthe source for this engine. The working principle of the engine is the magneticforce principle, i.e. magnetic repulsion between the same poles of twodifferent magnets. A set of Electromagnets and a Permanent magnet i.e.
Pistonare used to achieve this. An electromagnet is placed at the top of the cylinderwhich repels the Piston during the downward stroke. Another set ofelectromagnets are placed along the cylinder wall which repels the Pistonduring the upward stroke alone.
This procedure completes one revolution of Crankshaft i.e. our output work. The total power supplied by Battery will be just tofulfil the Copper losses of winding and power required to magnetize thewindings.
The Electromagnet is energized by a rechargeable battery source ofsuitable voltage and the polarities of Electromagnet are set in such a way thatit will repel the Permanent magnet. The battery can either be recharged bysolar power or through Electric power. Thus this engine helps to achieve Zeropoint fuel consumption. INTRODUCTION With the diminishing fossil fuelresources and unabated increase in energy costs and environmental concerns,engines using alternate energy sources such as bio-fuel, solar power, windpower, electric power, stored power, etc.
are being developed around the world.However, such engines have many limitations. Production of bio-fuel takesenormous resources and they still pollute the environment. They do not meet theever increasing energy demand as well. Similarly, the solar power is notefficient.
Added to all, the initial capital and subsequent maintenance costsfor machines that use alternate energy sources are very high. Hence, in theabsence of a viable alternative, until now, switching to new technology bychanging from traditional Internal Combustion engines has been a challenge.Ranjithkumar R,MechanicalEngineering,RMKEngineering College,[email protected] Magnetism is thebasic principle of working for an electromagnetic engine. The general propertyof magnet i.e.
attraction and repulsion forces is converted into mechanicalwork. A magnet has two poles. A north pole and a south pole. When like polesare brought near each other they repel and attract when like poles are broughttogether. This principle is being used in the electromagnetic engine In this engine,the cylinder head and wall contains electromagnet and a permanent magnet isattached to the piston head. When the electromagnet at the top is charged, itrepels the piston downwards and when the electromagnets around the walls chargedit pushes the piston upwards thereby rotating the crankshaft. This is how poweris generated in the electromagnetic engine.
It utilizes only repulsive forcethat allows the field to dissipate completely. The electromagnetic engineshould ideally perform exactly the same as the internal combustion engine. Thepower of the engine is controlled by the strength of the field and the strengthof the field is controlled by the amount of windings and the current that isbeing passed through it. If the current is increased the power generated by theengine also increases accordingly.
The current that is used to charge theelectromagnet is taken from a DC source like a lead acid battery. The mainadvantages of electromagnetic engine are that it is pollution free. Also it iseasy to design an electromagnetic engine because there are no complicatedparts. Since the engine doesn’t have combustion, valves, water cooling system,fuel pump, fuel lines, air and fuel filters and inlet and exhaust manifoldsetc. can be eliminated from the engine.
The main challenge faced in designingan electromagnetic engine is that it has to be as efficient as an internalcombustion engine. COMPONENT DESIGN A. CYLINDER: Electromagnetic engine usesonly magnets for its operation. A series of electromagnets are arranged alongthe inner sides of the Piston. The cylinder must take care of unwanted magneticfield. The temperature within the electromagnetic engine cylinder is very lowand so no fins are needed for heat transfer.
This makes the cylinder easilymanufacturable. Also the cylinder is made of aluminum, a non-magnetic materialwhich limits the magnetic field within the boundaries of cylinder periphery.Usage of aluminium material makes the engine lighter unlike the cast-ironcylinder used in internal combustion engine. B. PISTON: The hollow piston casing ismade up of non-magnetic stainless steel, titanium or similar materials of highresistivity and low electrical conductivity.
Alternatively, piston casing can also be madeup of non-metallic, thermal resistant materials as well or can be made byintegrating both nonmagnetic and non-metallic materials. Top end of the hollowcase is fitted with a powerful permanent magnet made of neodymium-iron-boron(NdFeB), samarium-cobalt (SmCo) or similar high field strength magneticmaterials. The permanent magnet acts as the core of the piston. The flatsurface (which is also the pole of the magnet) of the piston that is nearer tothe pole of the electromagnet is called the magnetic head of the piston orpiston head. The flat surface of the piston head may be completely exposed orit may be covered by a thin layer of non-magnetic material of sufficientthickness. The other end of the piston case connects to the piston rod thatconnects to the crankshaft. The crankshaft and the piston rod convert thelinear reciprocating movement of the piston to the circular movement.
C. CONNECTING ROD: In a reciprocatingengine, the connecting rod is used to connect the piston to the crankshaft. Itconverts the linear motion or reciprocating motion of the piston to thecircular motion of the crankshaft. The connecting rod used in this engine isthat of a power sprayer. The material of the connecting rod is cast iron. Asthe magnetic fields are contained inside the cylinder, the connecting rod willnot be affected much. The connecting rod is same as that of an InternalCombustion engine.
No modification is required. D. FLYWHEEL: Flywheel is madeup of mild steel and it is used to convert reciprocating energy into rotationalenergy. It regulates the engine’s rotation, making it operate at a steadyspeed. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia and thus resist changesit rotational speed. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportionalto the square of its rotational speed. Energy is transferred to the flywheel byapplying torque to it. It is used to store the rotation kinetic energy.
E. ELECTROMAGNET: Anelectromagnetic coil is formed when an insulated solid copper wire is woundaround a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet. When electricityis passed through a coil, it generates a magnetic field. One loop of wire isusually referred to as a turn or a winding, and a coil consists of one or moreturns. For use in an electronic circuit, electrical connection terminals calledtaps are often connected to a coil.
Coils are often coated with varnish orwrapped with insulating tape to provide additional insulation and secure themin place. A completed coil assembly with one or more set of coils and taps isoften called the windings. F. RELAY: A relay is anelectrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay createsa magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts.
Thecoil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and most havedouble throw (changeover) switch contacts. Relays allow one circuit to switch asecond circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example alow voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit.There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits;the link is magnetic and mechanical.
E. G. TIMER 555IC : The 555 timer ICis an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation,and oscillator applications. The 555 can be used to provide time delays, as anoscillator, and as a flip-flop element. Derivatives provide up to four timingcircuits in one package. Introduced in 1972 by Signetics, the 555 is still inwidespread use, thanks to its ease of use, low price, and good stability. H.
RECHARGABLEBATTERY: Where high values of loadcurrent are necessary, the lead acid cell is the type most commonly used. Theelectrolyte is a dilute solution of sulphuric acid (H?SO?). In the applicationof battery power to start the engine in an auto mobile, for example, the loadcurrent to the starter motor is typically 200 to 400A One cell has a nominaloutput of 2.1V, but lead-acid cells are often used in a series combination ofthree for a 6-V battery and six for a 12-V battery. The battery can either berecharged through solar power or through electric power.
WORKINGTheworking of the electromagnetic engine is based on the principle of magnetism. Amagnet has two poles a north pole and a south pole. Magnetism is a class ofphysical phenomenon that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets.By principle of magnetism, when like poles of a magnet is brought together theyrepel away from each other.
When unlike poles are brought near each other theyattract. This is same for the case of an electromagnet and a permanent magnettoo However,instead of using permanent magnets, the principle of electromagnetism isused to create strong and large temporary magnets. When an electric current ispassed through a coil of wire, magnetic field is generated around the coilaccording to Faraday’s laws.
. So the idea is to modify thepiston head and cylinder head and walls into magnets so that force can begenerated between them. This working ofthe electromagnetic engine is based on attraction & repulsive force of themagnet. The engine greatly resembles the working of a two-stroke engine. Tostart, let us begin from the situation, when piston is located in the BDC, i.e. in the lowerposition. The coil in the cylinder head is connected through the battery, thecopper coil is energized to produce the magnetic field so that the coil repelsthe piston with a greater force.
This forces the piston to move from TDC toBDC, i.e. Piston completes downward force.
Upward stroke isachieved by the series of alternating pole magnets placed along the cylindricalwalls. The magnet in front is pulling with an attracting (opposite)magnetic pole and the magnet in back is pushing with a repulsing (similar)magnetic pole. Thus the piston moves upwards with a large repelling force.
. Thesepull the Piston from the front and push it from behind. These pull and pushforces together helps the piston to move from BDC to TDC, i.
e. Piston completesupward stroke. Permanentmagnet is fixed in the piston and iron material is connected to copper coil. Sothat the iron material is converted into electromagnet when the power supply isgiven to it. The copper coil is energized to produce the magnetic field. Whenthe current is increased, the electromagnetic force also increases and thepiston moves up and down with a greater speed. It is shown in the followinggraph of Coil current Vs.
Electromagnetic force. FORMULASMax.Force exerted by electromagnet on piston, F1 = (N2 I 2KA)/2G2 (1)Where,N = number of turns I = Current flowing through coil K = Permeability of free space = 4?×10-7 A = Cross-sectional area of electromagnet G = Least distance between electromagnet andpermanent magnet. Force exerted bypermanent magnet Force, F2= (B2A)/2µ0 (2) Where, B = Flux density (T) A = Cross-sectional area of magnet µ 0 = Permeability of free space = 4?×10-7.Theforces F1 and F2 are calculated for both upward and downward strokes. NowFlux density, B= Br /2*(D + z)/(R2 + (D + z)2 ) 0.5 – z/(R2 + z 2 ) 0.5 (3) Where, Br = Remanencefield z = distance from a pole face D = thickness of magnet R = semi-diameter of the magnet.
Totalforce, F= F 1 + F2 (4) Torque, T= F × r (5) Where F = total force on piston r= crank radius Energy stored onflywheel, E= T × ? (6) Where T = torque ?= Angle of rotation Also E= 0.5 × I × ? 2 (7) Where, I = moment of inertia offlywheel ? = angular velocity Moment of inertia I = 0.5× m × r 2 (8) Where, m = mass of fly wheel r = radius of fly wheel Outputpower, P = (2?NT)/60 (9) Where,N = speed T= Torque Tocalculate efficiency, Efficiency =(Output/Input) × 100 (10) ADVANTAGES · Pollutioncan be minimized to a maximum extent because of the electromagnetic concept.· Electriccurrent required for the operation is obtained through solar panels , hencethis engine is 100% eco-friendly.
· Coston cooling system is comparatively low.· Frictionloss is low and hence reduced wear and tear CONCLUSION The electromagnetic engine has various advantagesover the internal combustion engines. The main advantage is, no fuel is beingused in the engine. This results in no pollution which is very desirable in thepresent day situation. As there is no combustion taking place inside thecylinder there is only very little heat generation. This eliminates the needfor a cooling system.
As magnetic energy is being used the need for air filter,fuel tank, supply system, fuel filter, fuel injector, fuel pump, valves etc.are eliminated and the design of the engine is made simple. Also by the use ofmaterials like Aluminum, titanium etc. we can reduce the weight of the engine.
Also existing transmission systems can be used in the electromagnetic engine.Less noise is produce during working. The disadvantage of the electromagnetic engine isits high initial cost.
The electromagnet and permanent magnet can be verycostly. Also the power of the permanent magnet will decrease during time andthe permanent magnet has to be replaced during regular intervals. The engine isnot as flexible as the internal combustion engine. The power source is battery.The number of batteries will vary according to the requirement. In high powerengines, the number of batteries will increase which may increase the totalweight of vehicle and consume a lot of space.
Theusage of relay and timer will limit the output of the engine. By using an ECUin the engine instead, power can be obtained on each stroke which will resultin an increased output. Also, by inserting more permanent magnets in series onthe piston will enhance the output of the engine. Thusthis engine can be practically used in automobiles. In cars solar panels can beused to charge the battery instead of depending on available electricity whichindirectly pollutes the environment as they are produced by burning fossilfuels.
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