According to Jessica (2014), informed consent can be defined as a
process for getting permission before conducting any intervention or procedure
on a person, or for disclosing personal information. It means that it’s one of the process in
which the patient or participant are participate in some research project after
being informed of its procedure including the risk and benefits as stated by Bulger
(2002). Nowadays, there are many ethical issues regarding the informed consent
that can be entwined. In rare circumstances, these may or can be ad litem to be
appointed by the court. Having an awareness of these issue’s example as below
is crucial for both researchers and participants. Misunderstandings concerning
the experimental procedures can lead participants to get involved in research
projects that they don’t approve of. So, according to Crisool et. al (2010), these issues are mostly related
to language barriers and false expectations.
Language plays important
role in the communication between second and third party as it could affect
direct healthcare delivery (Crane,1997). From the informed consent taken, it is
assume that the individual who signs the consent form does with full of
understanding for each sentence stated . However , it is difficult to identify
the percentage of patient’s understanding since there is no establish method to
measure the level of understanding towards the information given to the
participant. So, it can be assumed that there is a degree of misunderstanding
that occur. In other word, the participants or individuals merely sign the
consent form without being fully aware of what they are dealing with. According
to Appelbaum et al. (1982), research
subjects systematically misrepresent the risk/benefits ratio of participating
in research as the study found that more than half participants failed to
understand the meaning of randomization. Most probably the consent is written
in the English and those misunderstanding crises increased with patient who
have limited English proficiency.
According to the Gueerro
(2014), he stated that informed consent has to be given in a language that is
understood by the participant or their representative. However the
misunderstanding still occur because of the quality of interpretation is poor.
Research has shown that the use of untrained translator in clinical setting
tend to make frequent errors as consequences in dangerous misinterpretations
Expectation is the outcome
that the participant’s desire to achieved. Even there such perfect in conveying
the information or no other religious impediments to the communication
relationship between researcher and participant, the misunderstanding can still
occur because of the false expectation of the projects or experiment outcome.
Lee et al. (2001) stated that
intermediate and advance stage patients respectively were given the consent
form with general information about the stem cell transplant and their
treatment. They were ask to complete the survey concerning about the
expectations. The physician were asked to complete a survey concerning the
likelihood of the treatment success.
This study found the disagreement between patient and physician
expectation 48%-93% of the survey. Patient mostly found to have higher
expectation about the treatment they are receiving from the physicians. Patient
in higher disease level would also hope for miracle to happen in the treatment.
As the result of the study show the patient hopes and expectations did not
reflect them of fully understand on what they were consenting to before the
procedure although they were aware of
potential treatment-related deaths as well.