ACID BASE TITRATION OBJECTIVES 1. To demonstrate the basic laboratory technique of titration 2. To learn to calculate molarity based on titrations INTRODUCTION Molarity (M) or molar concentration is a common unit for expressing the concentration of solutions. It is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution (or millimoles of solute per milliliter of solution). The concentration of a basic solution can be determined by titrating it with a volume of a standard acid solution (of known concentration) required to neutralize it.
The purpose of the titration is the detection of the equivalence point, the point at which chemically equivalent amounts of the reactants have been mixed. The amount of reactants that have been mixed at the equivalence point depends on the stoichiometry of the reaction. In the neutralization reaction of HCl and NaOH, the equivalence point occurs when one mole of HCl reacts with one mole of NaOH. However, in the reaction of H3PO4 and NaOH, the equivalence point occurs when one mole of H3PO4 reacts with 3 moles of NaOH. HCl + NaOH —–> NaCl + H2O H3PO4 + NaOH —–> Na3PO4 + 3 H2O (1) (2)
For example, the titration of 16. 00 mL of 0. 184 M HCl requires 25. 00 mL of a NaOH solution. To find the molarity (molar concentration) of the NaOH solution: 0. 01600 L HCl x 0. 184 moles HCl = 0. 00294 moles HCl 1 L solution (3) 0. 00294 mol HCl x 1 mole NaOH = 0. 00294 moles NaOH 1 mole HCl 0. 00294 moles NaOH = 0. 118 M NaOH 0. 02500 L NaOH (5) (4) To determine when neutralization occurs, an indicator such as phenolphthalein can be used. An indicator is a substance which undergoes a distinct color change at or near the equivalence point.
The point at which the indicator changes color and the titration is stopped is called the endpoint. Ideally, the endpoint should coincide with the equivalence point. Phenolphthalein is colorless in acidic solution and reddish violet in basic solution. PROCEDURE In this experiment, you will determine the molarity of the NaOH solution which has been previously prepared in Experiment 8. You will do this by using the NaOH solution as a titrant and titrate standard acid solution until you reach the endpoint. Two standard acid solutions (HNO3 and H2SO4) of 0. 05 M will be available. The volumes of NaOH required to neutralize the acid solution will be tabulated and compared. Rinse the 50 mL buret three times with deionized water, and then twice with about 5 mL of the sodium hydroxide solution. Clamp the buret in position and fill the buret to just above the zero mark with the basic solution. Be sure to let any bubbles out of the tip of the buret. Bring the NaOH solution meniscus down to or below the zero mark, read, and record the buret reading to the nearest 0. 02 mL.
Use a graduated cylinder to add 20. 0 mL portions of the standard acid solution to each of three clean Erlenmeyer flasks. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein (PTH) to each flask. Set one flask under the buret, and add sodium hydroxide slowly, swirling the flask constantly. As you approach the endpoint, a pink spot, indicating a local excess of the titrant, will grow in size. Slow down the rate of addition of sodium hydroxide when a pink color begins to persist momentarily outside the place where the solutions mix. Proceed dropwise from this point.
Before the endpoint is reached, a temporary pink color will be seen where the NaOH drop hits the bulk solution. Stop as soon as the first permanent pale pink color appears. This is the endpoint. Read the buret to the nearest 0. 02 mL and record the reading. Repeat with the other two flasks. Calculate the molarity of the NaOH solution separately for each titration. ACID BASE TITRATION LABORATORY REPORT NAME:_____________________________ DATE:_____________________________ FORMULA OF ACID USED:________________________________ Write the balanced equation to represent this neutralization reaction.
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Volume of acid used Molarity of acid used Initial buret reading Final buret reading _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Volume of NaOH used _______ Molarity of NaOH sol’n _______ AVERAGE MOLARITY OF NaOH ___________ Class results: Volume of NaOH used HNO3 ______ _______ _______ H2SO4 _______ _______ _______ Show a sample calculation of NaOH molarity: QUESTIONS 1. HNO3 and H2SO4 have the same molarity. Why did H2SO4 require about twice the volume of NaOH solution for the titration? 2.
Explain the effect of each of the following sources of error on the molarity of NaOH as determined in this experiment stating whether the concentration of NaOH obtained would be too high or too low. a. The buret is contaminated with an acid solution. b. The buret contains a large air bubble in the tip, which disappears in the course of the titration. c. A small volume of the acid solution is spilled when you transfer it into the Erlenmeyer flask. 3. Using the molarity of the NaOH solution obtained from your titration, calculate the molarity of a 26. 0 mL of CH3COOH solution that requires 32. 50 mL of NaOH to reach the endpoint.