Advertising times. First, before watching the program the

Advertising is one of the ways that
connects enterprises to consumers. Although enterprises have their own brand
image they all have a common goal – to find the right person for their products
or services in order to influence the consumers. Besides brand image and
spokesperson, another component that can affect the consumers’ opinion is
advertising frequency. In their study on The Effect of Advertisement Frequency
on the Advertisement Attitude-The controlled Effects of Brand Image and
Spokesperson’s Credibility, Chu et al. (2012) attempted to know the effects of
brand image and the credibility of the spokesperson on the consumers’ opinion,
in addition to the effects of advertising frequency.

In today’s modern world, numerous
enterprises compete to be on top consequently the way they advertise their
products or services can have a massive effect on the consumers. The authors
focused their research on three hypotheses – (a) first, brand image positively
influences the effect of advertising (b) second, the spokesperson’s credibility
has a positive influence on consumers’ attitude towards advertising and (c)
third, different advertising frequency has different effects on consumers’
attitude towards advertising.

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The researchers applied a hybrid method
to gather and examine information. They modified a 50-minute popular television
show including 6 commercials with their target and interfering advertisements
at a frequency of 1, 2, 4 and 6. The 457 participants who joined in this
experiment were second and third years students who studied at the University
of Science and Technology in Taipei. Two survey-questionnaires containing
questions about the brand image, spokesperson’s credibility and attitude to
advertising were used at different times. First, before watching the program
the participants were told to answer a questionnaire about the brand image and
spokesperson’s credibility. Second, after watching the program they were asked
to fill out another questionnaire about their reaction to the advertisement.

The data validated the researchers’
three hypotheses. First, the study revealed that the students’ view of the
brand image had a positive effect on them naturally, the higher the brand
image, the higher the consumers’ attitude towards advertising is. Second,
similar to the first hypotheses the experiment also showed that the
spokesperson’s credibility had a positive effect on them assuming that the
credibility of the spokesperson is higher, then the consumers’ attitude towards
advertising would also be higher. Lastly, the study revealed that different
advertising frequency did have different effects on the consumers’ attitude
towards advertising; they believed that when participants understood the brand
of the product and trusted the spokesperson to a degree, the participants’
attitude towards advertising frequency varied when they view the advertisement
at different times. However, according to Blair (1987) “high frequency of
advertising will bore the audience and less persuasion of advertising has a
worse effect even though the frequency of broadcasting is increased”(p.
45-50) which contradicted to what the researchers had analyzed that lead to
them in stating that higher frequency has a higher influence on consumers’

The topic about the effects of brand
image, spokesperson’s credibility and advertisement frequency on the
advertisement attitude of consumers is old which means there is a possibility
of it being a replication or an extension of previous studies. Despite being a
replication or extension of other studies, it is still a good paper as it
contains information from previous studies, for instance, the questions used in
the questionnaires were from other researchers.

This study was published in 2012;
furthermore, a majority of the studies that were used as reference were between
a decade and four decades old if it is to be subtracted to the current year
which could lead to problems for the paper. Some of the reference materials
that were used were reasonable given the time it was written; however, it
should be noted that this kind of study has been examined by numerous
researchers so there should be at least a recent study that was used in the
making of this article.

Overall, the study seems well-made apart
from the paper and reference material’s old age. However there is another
possible problem, the researchers only used this experiment on college students;
they should also use them for all ages as it may have different results from
what they had learned.