Afghanistan war began in the year 2001, on October 7, when the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) by US military was launched, together with the British military, in response of the US attacks, which was on September 11, the same year (Katzman, 2010). The war characteristically evolved from violent struggle against the Al-Qaeda and its supporters (The Taliban regime) in a complicated counterinsurgency effort. The first war phase was aftermath of US September 11; attacks.Enduring freedom operation was launched by US, in order to counter Al-Qaeda and destroy their bases of operation in Afghanistan, which they used to prepare and conduct terrorism activities. In the first war phase, the US and the other coalition forces, working together with the opposition forces of Afghan, quickly ousted the Taliban regime.
The cause of Afghan war was that Osama bin laden, said to be master mind of many terrorism acts conducted in many parts of the world had based his organization of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan since the year 1996. The afghan Taliban government was not ready to surrender him in the hands of Americans or give out information concerning him since they said he was guest of Afghanistan people. The Afghanistan invasion was directly aimed at capturing Osama and also overthrowing the regime of the Taliban’s since it harbored him (Auken, 2010). They also wanted to overthrow the rule of Taliban and create another government in the Afghanistan country since this Taliban government was causing many sufferings to its people especially to the religious minorities and women (Hampson, 2010). The Americans saw the only good way to capture Osama and even destroy the Al-Qaeda organization was through invading Afghan. The bombing could prepare way for ground invasion, disrupt the control and command systems of the enemy and also guarantee supremacy on the air. The Afghanistan invasion was conducted using techniques and tactics of conventional military by the government of US and Britain (Katzman, 2010).
Another factor that led to Afghanistan to be invaded is because the continued pressure that Taliban was putting on the Northern Alliance with assistance from Osama and his Arabic forces. The airline hijackings in United States were the work of the al-Qaeda organization which dealt a major blow to the Americans internal security directly prompted the invasion of Afghanistan. Coordination between Northern alliance and allied to the activities whereby the ground attacks was by the northern alliance where as air attacks was by the allies. These attacks resulted To the Kabul fall in 2001, Nov 13 since Taliban mostly retreated from the northern part of Afghanistan. As more troops of the allied entered into the war and also the forces of Northern alliance fought towards southwards, al-Qaeda and the Taliban’s retreated and moved to the mountainous border between Pakistan and Afghanistan. This war resulted to many deaths which include: more than 2,500 al-Qaeda lost their lives, 23,000 Taliban’s also lost their lives. The Taliban forces were also killed as result of the war (Catalinotto, 2009). Afghanistan policemen who were killed were approximately 3,606.Also 304 security guards and 1087 solders were killed as they were battling the al-Qaeda and Taliban insurgency (Katzman, 2010). More than 31,000 Afghanistan civilians were killed during the war. Many continue to lose their lives till today.
Americans who died during the war were 882 and includes the deaths of the US military in both Uzbekistan and Pakistan.UK people who died during the war were 247 in number. Other people who died during the Afghanistan 40 people from Germany, war include: 138 Canadians, 38 people from France, people from Denmark were 31, and 25 people from Spain. There are also other few number of people who died from other nations such as Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Australia, Estonia, Norway, Czech republic, Latvia, Hungary, turkey, Finland, and Lithuania.
After America was sure that the strategy of counter insurgency in Afghanistan was falling, they decided to end the major attacks. The diminishing effect of the Afghanistan counter insurgency doctrine and the command chain has led to reduces U.S. and allied forces attacks. The Karzai administration, brokered by the Americans continues to spearhead stabilization of the Afghanistan nation. The controversy now is the period the American forces will take to get out of Afghanistan. Continued stay in Afghanistan is seen by many Americans as a waste of resources. In other words, only the Afghans themselves can now rebuild the country. The Karzai government, with the assistance of the international community has made a big step towards regaining control of the nation. A good example is the recent held general election, which was termed by many as a sign of democracy in the making (Katzman, 2010).
The Afghanistan war was conducted within few months but it resulted into many deaths of innocent civilians as well as soldiers. Afghanistan also suffered a lot from these war the troops destroyed a lot of Afghanistan cities. Today, debate is ongoing over the removal of the coalition soldiers from Afghanistan, especially the U.S. Soldiers. Many argue that continued stay in Afghanistan would only worsen the situation.
Auken, B. (2010). Pentagon paints Bleak Picture of Afghanistan War as More Civilians Die. Retrieved July 27, 2010, from http://www.wsws.org/articles/2010/may2010/afgh-m01.shtml
Catalinotto, J. (2009). Debate over Afghanistan War Moves to Congress. Retrieved July 27, 2010, from http://www.workers.org/2009/world/afghanistan_0924/
Hampson, R. (2010). Afghanistan: America’s Longest War. Retrieved July 27, 2010, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2010-05-27-longest-war-afghanistan_N.htm
Katzman, K. (2010). Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy. Retrieved July 27, 2010, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL30588.pdf