All However, he turned in to stone

 All You Need to Know About Incan Background            TheIncan empire was one of the largest empires that emerged in the 16th century.Also known as the Inka or Inca Empire was primarily occupied by the Inca peoplewho initially conquered pre-Columbian America. They originated from the Cuscoregion in the 12th century and were considered pastoralists. From their originstory of the three caves, they developed an oral history. The three caves arereferred to as Tampa T’uqu, which was at the center, and was also known asQhapaq T’uqu. On either side were the other two caves, Maras T’uqu and SutiqT’uqu.

The caves according to the people of the Inka community were crucial tothe growth of the empire.             Accordingto the Incan oral History, from the cave in the middle, four sisters and fourbrothers emerged. The brothers were known to as Ayar Cachi, Ayar Awaqa, AyarUchu and Ayar Manco. On the other hand, the names of the sisters were MamaOcllo, Mama Raua, Mama Quran and MamaHuaco. While the middle cave produced thebrothers and sisters, the people that stepped out of the other caves were thosewho were to be the ancestors of the clans of the Incan empire.

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From this briefdescription is where the whole story of how the Incan empire came intoexistence and developed to become of the largest in the world.               Fromthe brothers, Ayar Manco was known to own magic equipment that was made by useof gold. People would dwell where the magic staff would stop or land. For thisto happen, the Incan people traveled for many years before they would settle.It is with this that they are considered pastoralist. However, during theirtravels, Ayar Cachi acknowledged himself the strongest and powerful. He wouldboast of the two values that he was tricked to go back to the caves to retrievea llama which was sacred by his brothers.

This was a way to rid him as he waslocked into the caves.             Whileall this was taking place, Ayar Uchu remained behind and would station himselfat the cave tops. The purpose of continuing behind was to take care of thepeople of the Incan empire. However, he turned in to stone after he tried toproclaim the intention of staying back. A shrine was constructed to preservethe rock. The sand was considered sacred. The other brother, Ayar Auca wouldtravel alone after the conflict and the drama that took place.

Those thatremained were the four sisters and Ayar Manco. However, the journey would notlast long as the staff made of beautiful gold would stick to the ground.  The place at which the journey cameto an end was at Cusco.

On the way, Ayar Manco and Mama Ocllo got a child whomthey named Sinchi Roca. With the help of Mama Huaca who was an excellentworrier, the Incan people managed to secure the place (Cusco) from the peoplewho initially occupied the land. Ayar Manco was later known as Manco Capac, thesole founder of the Incan empire. He and his sisters developed the Cusco areabefore he would turn into stone like his brothers. His heir was his son SinchiRoca. And that’s how the empire came into existence.IncaninstrumentsIn most ancient and modern communities,music was part of the cultural practices. The Incan population was also notleft behind as they had there owned music made from instruments they made.

Fromvarious research works, it was found that the Incan people used flutes, drums,bells, and panpipe. Apart from the mentioned instruments they also had theAndean. The panpipe and the Andean were the most used instruments during thetraditional ceremonies to make the Peruvian music. The Incan believed thatplaying music during traditional ceremonies would keep alive animal souls.Therefore, the valued music and the instruments used to make the music.

The Incas had two types ofinstruments used in making the music. They were categorized into the wind andthe percussion instruments. PercussioninstrumentsBombo: this a drum wooden made fromanimal skins and a hollow tree trunk. The surface comes from sheep or the llamawhich covers the cow’s skin on the inner side.Wancara: this is a big round drumalso made from animal skin used to produce a bass sound.Tynya: is the smaller of the twomentioned above. It is in the shape of a wancara and was played by women.

  Chajchas or Chullus: It is aninstrument made of goat hooves that have been dried and tied to form a ribbon.WindinstrumentsThe wind instruments include flutesand the panpipes. The panpipes are further dividing into smaller instrumentslike the antaras, ocarinas, fukuda, siku, and rondador.Rondador: this is a musicalinstrument that has pipes made in a pentatonic manner.

The origin of the rondadoris from the northern region of the empire (Ecuador and Peru) and is almostsimilar to the antaras.Antares: this instrument consists ofpipes made in one row. The tubes are cylindrical and are made of clay that isheld in place by a cotton thread. The pipes are arranged from biggest tosmallest to form a triangle like structure. However, with time, bamboo pipeswere preferred other than the clay ones due to the delicate nature of the clay.Siku: made of light reeds (songo),the instrument originated from the highland areas near Titicaca Lake. The weedswere obtained from the banks of the water source and made into two rowsseparately.

One end would be left open while the other would be closed. Eachrow contained six pipes arranged horizontally and were tied together with arope. Apart from the above mentioned, otherwind instruments were the pinkillo and the quena which resembles a flute. Also,there was a pututu made from a seashell and sounded like a trumpet.

Useof music by the IncaThe community used music for variouspurposes. However, the most common method of music was during the religiousceremonies and functions. The music was accompanied by dances to enlighten themood and give people a joyful moment. Also, music was used to mark the variousagricultural events. Music was used during celebrations and also during workingtimes.Backgroundof QuechuasThe Quechua community is made up theindigenous individuals that occupied Ecuador, Argentina, Peru, Columbia, andChile. They communicated by use of the Quechua languages.

The common languagewas the southern Quechan dialect. Despite the difference in linguistics, theyshare so many cultural aspects. They have established agriculturalist with astable economy. However, the primary binding factor from the south AmericasQuechua communities was the language that is widely spoken in the region. Backgroundof AymarasThey are an indigenous group ofpeople that originate from the Andes. Some of the individuals of the communitywere also located in the Altiplano area. Just like the Quechuas they occupymost of South America and share some of the cultural activities. However, theywere chased from their place of occupation by the Inca people in during the15th and 16th century.

  They currentlyoccupy modern Peru and Bolivian nations.Genreof Andean Music across South AmericaThe Andean communities from SouthAmerica are known for a wide range of music styles.  The Aymaras, Quechuas and other cities thatoccupied the Andes region of the Inca empire had well-developed melodies andchants. With the aid of Spanish elements of music, the people created adifferent variety of music for different purposes.  The genre of music practiced by the Andeansincludes the Carnavalito, Diablada, Tinku, San Juanito, Huayno, Afro-BolivianSaya and the Chicha.CarnavalitoBackground infoThe carnavalito is a traditionaldance from the South American regions of Altiplano and puna. The dance isaccompanied by music and is practiced during the festive religiousseasons.

  It is believed that the danceexisted long before Spanish came to the region. Americans who had come intocontact with the community people danced to the music routine. It was initiallyclassified as a dance, but over time it became a music genre due to the use ofmusical instruments. Some of the devices used include the siku, bombs, and thequena.DescriptionThe music genre mostly happens duringthe festive religious seasons as a way of celebrating and praising their gods.As stated above, the sensuality was accompanied by the bombs, siku and thequena. The form of dance can be considered as a syncretism between two culturesinvolving the Spanish colonial culture and the indigenous culture.DiabladaBackground InfoAlso known as the Danza de losDiablos is a dance routine originally from a Bolivian region known as Oruro.

Despite origination from Bolivia, the dance also found its way to Chile whereis known as La Tirana, and in Peru where it is commonly referred to as Puno. Inthese countries, the dance can be used an s symbol of the indigenous culturalidentity.DescriptionIn English term, the dance isreferred as the demon dance, and is characterized by the use of devil suits andmask worn by those taking part in the dance. The music was made by use of the Suki during the performance.

It wasbelieved to be a mixture of the Spain theatrical presentation and the Andeanceremonies (religious ceremonies). The purpose of this music dance was to honorthe rituals to the gods. An example was the Llama llama dance routine forpleasing the Uru god (Tiw).TinkuBackground infoTinku originates from the Aymaracommunity in Bolivia. It was a ritual which meant to encounter or meet. Thisexplains the routine which brought together people from different cities todance to the ritual songs.   The ceremonyis primarily held in May in an area known as Potosi in Bolivia.

DescriptionFrom the meaning of Tinku, we get toknow what the ritual is like. It is during this time that men and woman gatheraround. It should be remembered that the people come from different places andonly meet during the ritual. The women will form a circle like structure andstart singing, and in the middle of it, the men would engage in fighting.

Onrare occasions, women would join the fight. Panpipes are used to create themelodies during the ritual.SanJuanitoBackground infoThe musical genre has its origin inmany countries in South America. The nations include Peru, Ecuador, andColumbia. However, according to Pedro Traversari and Gabriel Ceballos who werescholars, the music genre originated from San Juan de Iluman which is locatedin the province of Imbabura. The san Juanito was mainly danced during thesolstice celebrations in the winter. It went along with the Saint John’s feastof the Spanish people hence the name San Juanito.

DescriptionThe melodies in this musical genreare bimodal and are made by the use of drums and flutes. The popularity of theSan Juanito is that it is heard in major cities and not only in nativecommunities as compared to other genres.HuaynoBackground infoThis is one of the most populargenres of music and dance that has its origin from the Andes highlands. It iscommonly played in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. However, in the recent days, ithas spread to Argentina and Chile.

It is from colonial Peru that the Huaynodeveloped from the urban dances and the traditional music (folk songs). TheQuechua people are known for practicing this kind of music and dance.DescriptionThe music was made from some musicalinstruments blended to produce a target melody. The tools used include siku,sharp, quena, violin, saxophone lute, mandolin and the charango. For the huaynoto efficiently work, the original beat is emphasized, which is then succeededby a short hit. Afro-BolivianSayaBackground infoJust like most of the music genre,the Saya has its origin from Bolivia in a region known as Yungas. The area ismade up of afro-descent individuals.

What the name says is derived from aKikongo word, meaning a singing voice during collective work. It was taken aswork song sag by enslaved individuals from Africa who were brought to SouthAmerica. What Afro-Bolivian saya is as a result of the mixture of both theAfrican and the native Bolivian communities’ culture? DescriptionThe dance involves caporales, where amale would be identical to his near counterpart.  They dress in caporal attires which areconstricting and very big. However, there is saya uniform designed by a lightmaterial.

The purpose of more bright clothing is to allow swift movement of theperformers.ChichaBackground infoThe chicha music began in the 1960sinthe Peruvian Amazons in the cities of oil. The genre was inspired by theColumbian cumbia. The music is a fusion of the number of music versions.

Theyinclude rock music, the huayno, and the Columbian genre. DescriptionChicha music is a distinct form ofAndean melody that incorporates some musical sounds and instruments. Theinstruments used to make this music include the surf guitar, Cuban percussion,and the Moog synthesizer.  Influenceof foreign cultures The different genre of music found inthe South America nations developed mainly to the interaction of differentpeople from different backgrounds. The cooperation led to the growth of a wholenew culture within the people. Apart from the mingling of people, there werealso foreigners who came to the regions with their unique culture. This led tothe drastic changes in the Andean community and culture as a whole. Some of theforeigners came from Spain, America, Japan, and Africa.

Before the Europeancontact, original melodies and chants were created from the communities thatoccupied the Inca Empire. These were the Quechuas and the Aymaras among others.Spaniard influence on Andean musicSpaniards were among the fewtravelers who toured the South American nations in the ancient days. Theirarrival came with an impact on the regions way of life. They came with a wholelot of new culture that influenced the Andean music and language. Despitehaving beautiful melodies of traditional music composed by the people of theland, the Spaniard came with a new culture that was adopted by the Andeanpeople. The Spaniards arrived in 1520’s.

Their arrival had a more considerableinfluence on the music style of the people in the area. They introduced thestring which was used to make new musical instruments. The introduction led tothe development of new tools with both a tradition and Hispanic blend. Thedevices were adopted and finally considered as Andean music instruments. Someof them include the small mandolin, which was made from an armadillo shell, andthe charango.When the Spaniard introduced thestring, it was like a stepping stone to the invention of some musicalinstruments. Only that these new tools were made of the traditional materialsand then blended with the string.

A perfect example of the development from theintroduction of series was the Andean harp. It was created in a way that itresembles a boat, with a half conical melodious box. The string was theultimate factor in the production of the sound.

Apart from coming up with stringinstruments, they also set up schools where they taught the western culture.The new culture that was shown included religion and Spanish music. Part of thesessions taught was playing and making of guitars, violin, and the harp. TheAndean music style blended well with the instruments, which was likeadvancement from the quena and panpipe. This made the Andean music to thrive asit was taught widely through the region.Japanese influence on the Andean musicThe Japanese were another of traveleror individual who had an impact on the Andean music.  From Bruno Nettl’s work, The Western Impacton Worlds Music, he explained the changes, survival, and adaptation that aidedin the development of the framework of musical cross-pollination.

Within thework, we get to understand how a non-Western county like Japan would impact theAndean music. The relationship between Japan and Bolivia music can beclassified as uncomplicated. They have a history of shared of imperial andracial oppression. This makes them a little analytical impact value in theirconnection musically.The impact of Japanese on the Andeanmusic comes as a result of the transitional cultural flow. Where the Japaneseculture had a change due to the Bolivian music and at the same time, the Andeanpeople developed a tone and rhythm that was adopted from the Japanese culturalelements. However, most studies suggest that the Japanese culture was greatlyinfluenced by the flow of the Andean music.

 They mainly assumed most of the Andean musical instruments and melodies.Despite being indigenous, the Bolivian music found its way in the Japanesenation.African influence on the Andean musicThe importance of African on theAndean music cannot be underestimated. In fact, they have had a music genredeveloped from some of their cultural practices. Africans reached the SouthAmerican continent as black slaves. They were brought from different parts ofAfrica making their music unique as their music was a blend of differentregional tunes.

Their coming to the South American nation, therefore, has hadan enormous impact that resulted in the development of the Afro-Bolivian Saya.The Africans ways of composing music blended with the Spanish and Andeanrhythm. This created a music criolla, and also, dances were developed along themusic.  The music came to be known as theAfro-Andean music. Some of this music was used during collective work by theblack slaves.

The music was later identified as saya which meant a singingvoice during cooperative work.An example of African influence inPeru is the Zamacueca, which is an African dance that accompanied the musiccomposed. To date, the dance has become a precursor to the marinara and stateselegance to be a national dance in the region.

 The dance is accompanied by the Afro-Andean music during competitions(marinara dance competition) which attract travelers from all over the world. American influence on the Andean musicThe American just like the Japanese,Africans and the Spaniards also influenced the Andean music. Considering theywere the closest to the South American region, their effect was greatly feltcompared to the other influencers stated above.

Their influence, however, isnot of much difference compared to the Spaniards. When they came to the regionsof South America, they began to teach the western culture which included thespread of a new religion and culture. Music was part of the new culture thatwas to be prepared to the people. A school for music was part of the Americandevelopment, traditional and modern music was blended to release a new version.Apart from teaching music and comingup with new instruments, the Americans also came with the concept of recordingand releasing the songs made by the Andeans. The music was considered one ofthe best of its times, so there was a need to spread to other parts. Also, theAmericans came up with the idea of holding concerts where Andean music would besung. In the event, various band groups emerge that aimed to promote the Andeanmusic.

Despite the musical development in the region, traditional instrumentswere still used and were blinded by the new ones that were brought along by thetravelers. New rhythms and beats were created, and the new genre of music camealong.Effects of Andean Music TodayThe Andean music has proven to affectmodern life. Despite being traditional, the music created a platform wherepeople could be entertained through music. Up to today, people visit the SouthAmerican countries for entertainment and also to perform certain rituals. Themusic also became the mother of concerts. People would gather around to see theperformance of the Andean music. This was carried up to date where shows havebecome common.

Andean music has brought about the development of music groups;bands have developed singing a blend of Andean and modern music. Lastly, theAndean music has led to the development of the various genre of music in thecurrent world. Through its influence, different individuals have acquired ideasfrom the music form and come up with pop, raps and other types of genre blendedwith the Andean music.  Use of Western Instruments in AndeanmusicWestern musical instruments are thekinds that were introduced to an indigenous community by travelers mostly fromEurope and America. When classified these tools are the latest versions thathave special modifications compared to the traditional kinds of instruments.

Itis not necessarily that the device is modified, but they can also be made fromtraditional instruments only that modern equipment is fitted to enhance theperformance. Despite the Andean communities having their musical instruments,the introduction of the western tools still had a significant impact on themusic lifestyle. There use adapted to suit the Andean music.One of the uses of the western musicin the Andean music was to produce musical sounds to blend with the song beingsung.  The western instrumentscomplemented the traditional music instruments in producing specific beats toprovide a rhythm that brings out the nature of a song. Also, the westernmusical tools would be used to entertain the audience.

Music was not only madeby singing while playing the instruments, but some form of music was also madeby just blending the traditional and western apparatus for entertainment. Someof the instruments were made to emulate certain sounds. These Instruments arethose that were used for ritual purposes in the Andean music.

Some instrumentswere used as signals during a performance.Modern Andean musicThere has been a drastic change inthe Andean music in the current times due to changes that have taken place tothe Andean culture and society as a whole. The increased social awareness bythe natives also has in the South American countries has also enhanced thespread of new ideas, therefore, changing the musical aspects and approaches.Ever since this breakthrough, there had been a significant growth of artistsand bands singing the Andean music.

The music has been blended with the westerninstruments and culture. Modern Andean music has also been recorded and sold asalbums to different parts of the world. Apart from selling recorded music,concerts have been put up to promote the growth of the music. Some of thegroups that have grown through the modern Andean music include Grupo Aymara,Quechua singer, and the Los Caracas. These artists and many others took themusic to different parts of the world due to their popularity. Andean music popularityOnce used only for spiritual andreligious purposes in the Inca community in South America, the Andean musicpresently has become more popular than before. With the growth of a new artistand the influence from the western countries, Andean music has taken the worldby a storm. Concerts are held in different parts of the world where the musichas been improved to suit a particular audience.

More of recorded albums of theAndean music is bought all over. This means that the popularity of the music inmodern times has risen as compared to the past times where it was onlyrestricted to the Inca empire.Influence on other Hispanic musicThe Andean music has greatlyinfluenced other Hispanic form of music which includes the Spanish, NuevaCancion, and the Cumbia.CumbiaThis type of music was practiced as acourtship dance within the African people who occupied the Caribbeancoast.  It later developed into a musicform as it incorporated the European and Andean instruments.

  The growth of the Cumbia was highlydependable on the Andean musical instruments. It also follows the musical stepsand characteristics of the Andean music. Its spread was too dependent on someof the Andean musicians.NuevaCancionThis is Hispanic music genre fromIberian America.

It entails lyrics composed of folks inspired styles which werecommitted socially. Just like in the Cumbia version, the Andean music wasessential in the growth and spread of the Nueva Cancion. It was easier to blendthis genre of music with the Andean music as both would involve traditionallike approach.

The later uses some of the Andeans music intonation in theformation of different kinds of rhythms. SpanishmusicThe Andean and Spanish music has somesimilarities. This is because at one point the Andean music was inspired by theSpaniard who traveled to the South American countries. However, the Andeanmusic has had a more significant influence on the Spanish music in the sensethat most instruments used by Spanish musicians have an Andean origin. Thebeats and rhythm of both music styles are almost similar.

Most of the Spanishmusicians tend to emulate the Andean music style.