AMRC subsequent encounters with those stimuli even

AMRC Draft

Aim: To discover why humans react in a negative cognitive matter
in difficult situations and how that influences people’s reactions to difficult

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Method: Leading the research of Positive Psychology, Martin
Seligman in 1965 conducted an experiment that focused on dogs and their
classical conditioning (the process by which an animal or human associate one
thing with another). Seligman discovered that in negative conditions Humans and
Dogs react and feel in a very similar manner (Anxiety, Depression, etc). During
the experiment, he had dogs placed inside an enclosed cage with a barrier. A
light would turn on followed by a shock. If the dog jumped over the box they
where not shocked. After an interval of 10 second the test continued. However
the experiment was also done by a group of dogs that where previously shocked
that they where unable to control. When the shocked dogs underwent the same
experiment the dogs discovered a way to turn of the shocks very slower or not
at all. Seligman had a theory. That it was the dogs ‘uncontrollability’ that
was rendering them helpless. During the first phase, group A received shocks
they could turn off and group B received shocks they couldn’t turn off. The
intensity for both groups where equal. After the experiment Seligman compared
the results of group A and B.

Results: Seligman noticed a trend between group A and B’s
reaction and learning. The results showed that Group A was able to effectively
stop the shocks in a total mean time of _______. However for group B, who
experienced uncontrollable shocks before hand was unable to turn off the shocks
and waited for the experimenter to turn off the shocks whilst still bearing the
shocks. To describe this effect Seligman invented the term “Learned
Helplessness”. By definition, “Learned Helplessness is a mental state in which
an organism forced to bear aversive stimuli, or stimuli that are painful or
otherwise unpleasant, become unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters
with those stimuli even if they are escapable, presumably because it has
learned that it cannot controlĀ  the
situation.” This clearly represents what had happened to the dogs of Group B.
Furthermore the dogs in Group B all reacted in very similar cases to humans in
stressful or painful situations. The dogs where showing signs of stress,
anxiety, nervousness etc. Which are also the cases shows by humans.

Conclusion: In Conclusion although Group B was able to stop
the shocks because of its negative cognitive mindset believing that they
couldn’t escape. This experiment allowed for major discoveries especially in
the negative mindsets (learned helplessness) of Dogs which are very similar to