This chapter discusses the background of the job, job statement, aim of the survey, range of the undertaking, significance of the undertaking, and chapter overview.1.
1 Problem BackgroundAmyotrophic sidelong induration ( ALS ) , normally referred to as “ Lou Gehrig ‘s Disease, ” is neurodegenerative disease that affects nervus cells in the encephalon and spinal cord. Motor nerve cells reach from the encephalon to the spinal cord and the spinal cord to musculuss throughout the organic structure. Progressive devolution of motor nerve cells in ALS finally leads to their deceases. When motor nerve cells die, the ability of the encephalon to originate and command musculus motion is lost. With voluntary musculus action increasingly affected, patients in advanced phases of disease may go wholly paralytic.
As motor nerve cells degenerate, they can no longer direct urges to the musculus fibres that usually result in musculus motion. Early symptoms of ALS frequently include increasing musculus failing, particularly affecting the weaponries and legs, address, get downing or take a breathing. ( The ALS Association, 2008 )Imagine holding a fully-functional encephalon trapped within a non-functioning organic structure. The encephalon would be witting and cognizant of its milieus ; it could believe and treat stimulations, but it would be unable to interpret thought into action. ALS is a rare upset that consequences in merely that ; all of the organic structure ‘s voluntary musculuss, with the exclusion of those that control oculus motion, go wholly paralytic.1.2 Problem StatementPeoples with ALS have problem pass oning with other people as they lose their ability to travel and talk. Simple bids such as desire to eat and short conversation are difficult to understand, doing them experience stray and may do deep depression.
With the usage of their eyes, it is possible for others to understand, given that there is an helper or a speech-language diagnostician ( SLP ) or speech healer that can assist interpret their oculus motions.Many merchandises and solutions have existed in order to turn to this job. Electronic voice synthesist is among the popular 1s which helps ALS patients such as Stephen Hawkingi??a celebrated English theoretical physicist and cosmologisti??to communicate by utilizing text to speech engineering. ( Peddling, 2007 ) It uses a text-to-speech ( TTS ) system that converts normal linguistic communication text into address. ( Allen, Hunnicutt, & A ; Kla, 1987 ) However, the job with this technique is there are differences between natural fluctuations in address and the nature of machine-controlled techniques for treating into wave forms.
For case, the challenge is make up one’s minding whether “ read ” should be pronounced as “ ruddy ” connoting past tense, or as “ reed ” connoting present tense. Numbers are frequently a job every bit good. Should i??423i?? be read as i??four hundred and twenty threei?? or frailty versa? The synthesist hardware required is besides frequently expensive.Another solution is a system where communicating is based on oculus wink. Eye wink is adopted as a switch to state judging patient ‘s purpose by utilizing several image processing. A list of purposes is displayed on the Personal computer proctor ; each purpose is displayed with an equal clip interval.
( Goldstein, 2008 )The jobs with these solutions are it is either expensive or difficult to understand. Therefore, an oculus tracking headset that translates the patientsi?? oculus motions into text and simple bids may get the better of these jobs.1.3 Research AimsAs a usher to successfully finish this research, the aims are determined and defined as follows:a. To develop a paradigm of an oculus tracking headset.B. To develop an on screen keyboard/command application that will interact together with the headset.1.
4 Scope and Limitation of the ResearchThe undertaking is executed to patients who suffer from ALS disease or similar. In peculiar, the research focuses on patients who are at the phase of ALS where they are unable to travel wholly except for their oculus. The oculus tracking headset has several design restrictions that were meant to stress low-cost and easiness of building over other facets of public presentation, hardiness and visual aspect. The package used to interact with the oculus tracking headset will merely concentrate on organizing texts and simple bids.1.5 The Significance of the StudyThe medical literature contains legion articles documenting the issues with ALS patients.
This study6 will convey great significance and parts to many parties particularly to patients themselves, future research workers and physicians. Since this research is conducted to enable ALS patients to pass on, future research workers can add new map or heighten the system by leting other signifiers of communicating such as facial look or by doing the current manner of communicating between patients and other people more seamless.Furthermore, this survey is good to assistance physicians to pass on and supervise their patients easy. When interaction between both parties can be understood clearly, this will cut down any trouble that would hold arisen.1.6 Administration of the ThesisThis undertaking paper consists of different chaptersThis chapter has introduced the projecti??s background, job statement, aims, significance, and the range of the undertaking and the overview of the study.The following subdivision, the “ Literature Review ” will assist to put this undertaking within the wider context and warrant its presence within a peculiar field of survey.
It consists of debut, definition of nomenclature related to the undertaking, treatment and critically measuring past and current research in the undertaking country and place spread in the literature of the field of survey that is intended to make full, and the decision.The undermentioned chapter, the “ Project Methodology ” describes the methodological analysis and stages involved in the undertaking, get downing from the first stages, which is be aftering and job designation, to the last stage ; certification.The undermentioned chapter, “ Consequences and Findings ” will depict the analysis and the consequences and discourse the results that has been performed and accomplished.This last chapter, “ Decision ” contains remarks and recommendations that will give the reader the concise sum-up of all the projecti??s major results.
The decision will besides include recommendations for farther work to be carried out where appropriate.The “ Mentions and Bibliography ” subdivision contains information obtained from books or diaries must be referred to in the text by the writer last name and followed by the twelvemonth of publication.“ Appendixs ” comprises of portion of the cryptography that were developed for the projecti??s application.Chapter IILITERATURE REVIEW2.
0 IntroductionThis chapter consists of definition of nomenclature related to the undertaking and a brief description of several similar yesteryear and current researches in the undertaking country and reappraisal of spread in the literature of the field of survey that is intended to make full, and the decision.2.1 Definition of Terminology2.1.1 Virtual Keyboard ( On-Screen Keyboard )An onscreen keyboard by and large appears on the same show used for plans and will stay for good seeable.
The keyboard can so be accessed utilizing the arrow device. In the simplest sense this means a criterion mouse, but through the usage of alternate mouse systems or switches a big figure of disablements can be addressed. Alternate indicating systems include foot/toe mouse, touchpad, trackballs, infrared/camera ( optical mouse ) and sip i??ni?? whiff switches. ( Public Service Commision of Canada, 2007 )2.1.2 Eye TrackingEye trailing is the procedure of mensurating either the point of regard or the gesture of an oculus relation to the caput. An oculus tracker is a device for mensurating oculus places and oculus motion.Eye trackers measure rotary motions of the oculus in one of several ways, but chiefly they fall into three classs.
One type uses an fond regard to the oculus, like a particular contact lens with a mirror or a detector embedded magnetic field, and the motion of fond regard is measured with the premise that it does non steal significantly as the oculus rotates. Measurement with fitting contact lens has a really sensitive recording of oculus motions, and magnetic hunt spirals are the method of pick for research workers analyzing the underlying kineticss and physiology of oculus motions.The 2nd wide class uses non-contact, optical method for mensurating oculus motions.
Light, normally IR, reflected in the eyes and experience with a picture camera or some other optical detector designed specifically. This information is so analyzed to pull out oculus rotary motion from alterations in the contemplation. Video based oculus trackers typically use the corneal contemplation and the centre of the student as to observe characteristics from clip to clip. A more sensitive type of oculus tracker, the dual-Purkinje oculus tracker uses contemplations from the forepart of the cornea and the dorsum of the lens as characteristics to track. A more sensitive method is to image characteristics from inside the oculus, such as retinal blood vass, and follow these characteristics as the oculus rotates. Optical methods, peculiarly those based on picture recordings, are widely used and preferred to stare tracking for non-invasive and cheap. ( Crane & A ; Steele, 1985 )The 3rd class uses possible measured utilizing electrodes placed around the eyes.
It is the beginning of the stationary electric field, which can besides be detected in entire darkness, and if the eyes are closed. It can be produced by the dipole theoretical account to the positive pole of the cornea and the negative pole of the retina. The electrical signals that can be derived utilizing two braces of electrode contacts placed on the tegument around the eyes are called Electrooculogram ( EOG ) .EOG is a technique for mensurating the resting potency of the retina. It is a really light-weight attack that, in contrast to current video-based oculus trackers, merely requires really low computational power, works under different lighting conditions and can be implemented as an embedded, self-contained wearable system. ( Bulling, Roggen, & A ; Tri??ster, 2009 ) It is therefore the method of pick for mensurating oculus motion in nomadic daily-life state of affairss and REM stages during slumber.2.2 Eye Tracking Related Researches and MerchandisesIn developing this survey, we have found several researches that have similar survey to this subject.
These merchandises and old surveies were utile to us as guidelines and provided a batch of inside informations to assist carry through all of the aims.2.2.1 Eye-Gaze Response Interface Computer Aid ( ERICA )Eye-Gaze Response Interface Computer Aid ( ERICA ) is a device that tracks oculus motion to enable hands-free computing machine operation. From the characteristics of the current portrayal, the interface calculates the approximative location of the user ‘s eye-gaze on the computing machine screen. The computing machine so executes bids associated with the bill of fare option presently displayed at this screen location. In this manner, the user can interact with the computing machine, run applications package, and pull off peripheral devices-all merely by looking at an appropriate sequence of bill of fare options displayed on the screen. ( T.
E. , White, Martin, Reichert, & A ; Frey, 1989 ) The device can besides present a man-made voice end product. The engineering can let users to talk, compose e-mail, surf the cyberspace, create paperss, or drama games through oculus motion entirely. No keyboard or mouse is needed. ( Reitan, 2005 )2.2.2 Eyegaze EdgeWith the Eyegaze Edge people with physical disablements can make many things with their eyes that they would otherwise make with their custodies. Simply by looking at control keys displayed on a computing machine proctor screen, the user can execute a wide assortment of maps including address synthesis, environmental control, directing electronic mails, shoping the Internet, playing games, typewriting, and commanding most Personal computer and MAC computing machines.
It is a communicating and control system for people with complex physical disablements. The system is operated wholly with the eyes. By looking at control keys displayed on a screen, a individual can synthesise address, command his environment ( visible radiations, call bells, etc.
) , type, run computing machine package, operate a computing machine mouse, and entree the Internet and electronic mail. Eyegaze Edge Systems are being used to compose books, attend school and heighten the quality of life of people with disablements all over the universe. ( LC Technologies, Inc.
, 2009 )2.2.3 OpengazerOpengazer is an application that uses an ordinary webcam to gauge the way of the useri??s regard. This information can so be passed to other applications. For illustration, used in concurrence with Dasher, opengazer allows composing with eyes. Opengazer aims to be low-priced package alternate to commercial hardware-based oculus trackers. ( Nel, 2009 )2.
2.4 A Single Camera Eye-Gaze Tracking System with Free Head MotionThis paper describes the design, execution and rating of an eye-gaze trailing system that meets cardinal demands as described in the debut. The individual camera, multiple flicker system achieves the truth claimed in the presence of free caput gesture within the field of position of the camera.
Over assorted combinations of hardware constellations and subjects the best truth achieved with the oculus off from the standardization. System truth is highest at the graduated place and degrades somewhat as the caput is moved off. ( Hennessey, Noureddin, & A ; Lawrence, 2006 )2.
2.5 A Communication System for ALS Patients Using Eye BlinkThe intent of the research is to plan a communicating system for ALS patients who have trouble in utilizing their custodies and oral cavity. In the proposed system, oculus wink is adopted as a switch to state judging patient ‘s purpose by utilizing several image processing.
A list of purposes is displayed on the Personal computer proctor ; each purpose is displayed with an equal clip interval. The patient can choose the campaigner purpose by winking his/her oculus. ( Takeshita, Uchibori, Mizukami, Satoh, Tanaka, & A ; Uchikado, 2003 )2.2.
6 Eye-Writing Communication for Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisThe eye-writing method predefines a symbol set incorporating symbols with distinguishable composing hints. A user of this method rotates his or her oculus balls to “ compose ” a symbol harmonizing to its designated authorship hint. Meanwhile, the oculus motion is detected utilizing a suited technique such as the electroculography, which measures electromotive force differences on the tegument around the user ‘s eyes. Distinct characteristics of the acquired eye-movement signals are extracted in order to find which symbol, among those in the symbol set, the user ‘s eyes have merely written. An eye-writing system has been implemented in this survey. Trials on topics with no known disablements have been conducted and the public presentation has been evaluated. The survey found that eye-writing system is potentially utile for easing communicating of sever ALS patients who have lost most of their unwritten speech production and handwriting abilities.
( Tsai & A ; Chen, 2009 )2.3 DecisionThis chapter briefly reviews all related and needed literatures, which are needed for the survey. It focuses on the similarities and differences of the system to earlier research. These similarities and the differences of our research compared to others described in table below.Eclipse is a multi-language package development environment consisting an integrated development environment ( IDE ) and an extensile circuit board system.
It is written largely in Java and can be used to develop applications in Java and, by agencies of assorted circuit boards, other programming linguistic communications including Ada, C, C++ , COBOL, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby ( including Ruby on Rails model ) , Scala, and Scheme. The IDE is frequently called Eclipse ADT for Ada, Eclipse CDT for C/C++ , Eclipse JDT for Java, and Eclipse PDT for PHP.Official site: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eclipse.
org/126.96.36.199 Netbeans IDE 6.
A JDK is required for Java development functionality, but is non required for development in other scheduling linguistic communications.The NetBeans Platform allows applications to be developed from a set of modular package constituents called faculties. Applications based on the NetBeans platform ( including the NetBeans IDE ) can be extended by 3rd party developers.
Using the freely available Camera Mouse 2011 to interact with the spectacless, user can command the mouse control and voyage the computing machine. From its web site, i??Camera Mouse is a plan that allows you to command the mouse arrow on a Windows computing machine merely by traveling your caput. The plan was developed to assist people with disablements use the computing machine. The chief audience for this plan is people who do non hold dependable control of a manus but who can travel their caput. Peoples with Cerebral Palsy, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, ALS, Multiple Sclerosis, Traumatic Brain Injury, assorted neurological upsets use this plan and its predecessors to run all types of computing machine package. Camera Mouse works as a mouse replacing system for Windows computing machines so it should work with merely about any application plan.
For illustration people use Camera Mouse with amusement plans, instruction plans, communicating plans, web browsers, and so on Camera Mouse works best with application plans that require merely a mouse and a left chink and that do non hold bantam marks. It ‘s easier to utilize Camera Mouse with application plans that do non necessitate utmost accuracy.i?? ( Gips, 2010 )