WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. – Anatomy is the study of the structures and relationship between body parts. Physiology is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole. The kidneys remove wastes and water from the blood. 2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level. Atom- is the smallest particle of an element; it is the least complex level. Atoms combine with other atoms to form molecules. An example of an atom is Carbon. – Molecules- is a particle composed of 2 or more joined atoms. Molecules combine with other molecules to form macromolecules. An example of a molecule is water. – Macromolecules- a larger molecule. Macromolecules combine with other macromolecules to form organelles. An example of a macromolecules is lipids. – Organelles- a small organ of a cell, which performs a particular function. Organelle form cells. An example of organelles is ribosomes. Cells- are the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms. Each cell has a set of organelles and performs a particular function. An example of cells is red blood cells. – Tissue- a group of similar cells that performs a specialized function. Two or more tissues combine to form organs. An example of tissue is connective tissue. – Organs- a structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function. Two or more organs combine to form organ systems. An example of an organ is the heart. – Organ systems- a group of organs that act together to carry on a specialized function.
The eleven organ systems collectively form the human organism. An example of the organ system is cardiovascular. – Human organism- the most complex level of organization and is defined as an individual living thing. 3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system. – Integumentary- forms external body, function is to protect deeper tissue from injury. Major organ is skin. – Skeletal- protects and supports organs, site of blood cell formation. Major organ is bones. – Muscular- allows motion, maintains posture.
Major organ skeletal muscles. – Nervous- responds to internal/external changes, activates muscles and glands. Major organ is brain. – Endocrine- secretes regulatory hormones and maintains homeostasis. Major organ is endocrine gland. – Cardiovascular- transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart. Major organ is the heart. – Lymphatic- returns fluids to blood vessels, disposes of debris. Major organ lymph nodes. – Respiratory- keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Major organ is the nasal cavity. – Urinary- eliminates nitrogenous wastes and maintains acid base regulated.
Major organ is the kidneys. – Digestive- Breaks down food and allows for nutrient absorption into blood and eliminates indigestible materials. Major organ is the small and large intestine. – Reproductive- production of offspring. Major organ in male is the testes, in female are ovaries. 4. Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things. 1) Movement 2) Responsiveness 3) Growth 4) Reproduction 5) Respiration 6) Growth 5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life. 1) Nutrients 2) Oxygen 3) Water 4) Stable body temperature 5) Atmospheric pressure 6.
Define the term homeostasis, what is involved in maintaining homeostasis, and explain how a homeostatic mechanism is regulated (i. e. negative feedback) by using examples that you find. – Homeostasis is the maintenance of stable, internal conditions within specific limits. Usually negative feedback is involved in maintaining homeostasis. All homeostatic mechanisms have three components in common receptors, control centers, and effectors. The receptor responds to changes in the environment, and sends information to control center. The control center determines a set point, analyzes information, and also determines an appropriate response.
The effector provides a means for response to the stimulus. 6. Demonstrate what is meant by “anatomical position”. – The position of the body in the anatomical position is standing erect, with face forward, upper limbs at the sides, and palms facing forward. 8. Define various directional terms (i. e. superior, inferior, etc. ), and compare different body parts using these terms (i. e. the elbow is proximal to the wrist). – Superior- toward the upper part of the structure. My eye is superior to my nose. – Inferior- toward the lower part of the structure. My chest is inferior to my chin. – Medial- midline of the body.
My nose is medial to my eyes. – Distal- farther from the point of attachment of a limb. My foot is distal to my knee. 9. List both anterior and posterior anatomical landmarks (i. e. orbital, inguinal, etc. ). Anterior o Orbital, nasal, buccal, oral, cervical, axillary, thoracic, brachial, antecubital, abdominal, umbilical, pelvic, carpal, coxal, pubic, digital, inguinal, patellar, femoral, crural, fibular, tarsal. Posterior o Cephalic, occipital, scapular, vertebral, lumber, sacral, gluteal, femoral, popliteal 10. Name the three major body sections (planes, cuts), and describe how each would be accomplished. ) Sagittal Cut- Divides the body into right and left portions. 2) Frontal Cut- Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. 3) Transverse Cut- Divides the body into superior and inferior portions. 11. Designate the five major human body cavities and name the organs within each on a human diagram. [pic] *** i wasnt sure what you wanted for this but i went to the wesite which you supplied us with and I postioned the correct cavity with the diagram. http://www. mhhe. com/biosci/esp/2002_general/Esp/folder_structure/le/m1/s7/lem1s7_8. htm 12.
Describe the anatomical importance of the diaphragm muscle and make sure you can spell it correctly!!!! – The diaphragm separates the thorax cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays an important role in respiration. 13. Describe the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the major organs found within each. 1) Right hypochondriac- liver, gall bladder, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon, right kidney 2) Left hypochondriac- stomach, tip of liver, tail of pancreas, small intestines, transverse colon, descending colon, pancreas, left kidney, spleen. ) Epigastric- esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, right and left adrenal glands, pancreas, right and left kidneys, right and left ureters, spleen 4) Right lumbar- tip of liver, gall bladder, small intestine, ascending colon, right kidney 5) Left lumbar- small intestines, descending colon, tip of left kidney 6) Umbilical- stomach, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, right and left kidneys, right and left ureters 7) Right iliac- small intestine, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon.
Female : right ovary, right fallopian tube 8) Left iliac- small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon; Female: left ovary, left fallopian tube. 9) Hypogastric- small intestine, sigmoid colon, rectum, right and left ureters, urinary bladder. Female: uterus, right and left ovaries, right and left fallopian tubes; Male: vas deferens, seminal vassicle, prostate Four Quadrants – Right upper quadrant o Liver o Gallbladder o Duodenum o Head of the pancreas o Right Adrenal gland – Right lower quadrant o Appendix o Right ureter – Left upper quadrant o Stomach o Spleen Pancreas o Left Adrenal gland – Left lower quadrant o Sigmoid colon o Left ureter o Left ovary o Left fallopian tube 14. Distinguish between visceral and parietal serous membranes, and differentiate between pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal varieties. – Parietal serous covers the body walls while visceral serous covers the internal organs. Pericardial encloses the heart, pleural cavities house the lungs. The peritoneal cavity is the potential space between the visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum. 15. Name the function of serous fluid. – Serous fluids are used for lubrication.