In recent old ages, the authorities is seeking to pass through the often used conventional building method toward a more technologically beforehand building method, Industrialized Building Systems ( IBS ) . Several policies are developed for the involvement of advancing IBS by the authorities. In order to rush the IBS use in the building industry, IBS Roadmap 2003 -2010 is published to advance the IBS through 5M scheme ( Manpower, Materials, Management, Monetary, and Marketing ) . On the other manus, CIMP 2006 -2015 besides highlights a strategic push for IBS contraption in the building undertakings. Furthermore, every new authorities undertakings are mandatory to intensify at least 70 % of IBS constituents start from twelvemonth 2008.
Although this engineering has introduced in Malaysia since 1960-an, the volume of IBS undertaking is still lack comparison to the conventional undertaking ( Kwai, 2010 ) . It seems to be the credence of IBS has non been promoting among Malayan builders. The wet trade building is still widely applied in building industry in Malaysia although it is really incurred higher building cost and longer building clip. Furthermore, the conventional building method is ever giving the feeling of “ Dirty, Difficult and Dangerous ” of building industry Malaysia.
IBS is peddled to be used in the building industry as it can work out the issue associated with jobs faced in conventional system. CIDB ( 2003 ) has presented that by utilizing IBS, it can get by with a turning demand of low-cost lodging ; less dependance on the foreign labors and heighten labour accomplishments. Furthermore, Kamar, K. A. M. et Al. ( 2009 ) besides stated that IBS can besides provides shorter building period, better quality of building, cleaner and neater building environment, less site stuff and besides minimum building stuffs wastage. In add-on, the contraption of IBS can besides farther decreases the accidents or hurts happen on site comparison to the conventional building method which has less accent on the occupational safety and wellness.
Furthermore, IBS besides enhances the image of the building industry in Malaysia as the current building status is ever considered as “ Dirty, Difficult and Dangerous ” ( CREAM and CIDB, 2010 ) . The advantage of bettering the image of the building industry is indispensable as the industry utilizing conventional method is ever associated with unprofessional patterns ( Mail, 2010 ) . This implicatively discourages the local work force to fall in the building industry. Furthermore, the low pay strategy of the building labours besides impedes the locals to affecting the building industry Malaysia. Therefore, the IBS is encouraged among the building industry in order to pull more locals to affect in this field.
Kamar K. A. ( 2010 ) further enhances that IBS can increase the fight of Malayan houses by offering better monetary value in the abroad undertakings. This can indirectly supply good repute of building industry Malaysia in international degree.
1.2 Problem statement
Conventional building industry, which besides considers as wet trade building is relied to a great extent on the manual work force. CIDB ( 2007 ) stated in CIMP that as most of the locals are holding the mentality that this industry is “ Dirty, Dangerous and Difficult ” , along with the low salary strategy and low occupational safety and wellness, it deters the locals from affecting the industry. This leads to manpower deficit in building industry and redounds to the trust of the building industry on the foreign labor. Furthermore, the industry is more willing to use unskilled foreign labor with cheaper rates compare to use local labors who require for higher rewards. This farther deteriorated the state of affairs of trust on foreign labor in building industry Malaysia. Many foreign workers are recruited from neighboring states such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, India and others.
Although the foreign labor is of import in equilibrating the high building cost and besides overcome the job of the deficiency of labor in building industry, there are several issues occur as the impacts of the dependance of the aliens. It leads to the currency flowage to other states, sociables job, offenses and besides upseting the growing of domestic economic system of Malaysia ( CREAM and CIDB, 2010 ) .
Therefore, in order to avoid the relying on the foreign workers and pull the locals, Kwai ( 2010 ) and CIDB in IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 ( 2003 ) suggested utilizing IBS alternatively of the conventional building method. Ahmad Bari et Al. ( 2008 ) besides hoped the use of IBS in building industry in Malaysia can manage the issue of the dependence of the foreign labor. The foreign labor is planned to cut down bit by bit from 75 % in twelvemonth 2003, 55 % in twelvemonth 2005 until 15 % in twelvemonth 2009 in IBS Roadmap 2003-2010. Beside from doing the building less labor oriented, IBS besides quicker every bit good as carry throughing quality concern ( Kamar K. A. , 2010 ) .
Apart from that, as a effect of the comparative cheap and abundant supply of foreign labor from neighboring states, it has deterred local contractors from prosecuting new and advanced ways of building besides. This leads to the status of deficiency investing in the engineering and equipment, and therefore building sector in Malaysia is being considered as low productiveness sector ( Chan, 2009 ) . Hence, IBS is introduced to get the better of this affair.
IBS is introduced for invention of the building engineering and besides managing the labour issue. Industrialized Building System ( IBS ) has been punctually highlighted in Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 as being important importance in building industry. It is hoped to be carried out in the building industry under Strategic Thrust 5: Invention through R & A ; D to follow a new building method. Treasury Circular Letter No.7 of 2008 besides released as one of the ways to advance the use of IBS in building industry. The authorities building undertakings are required to content at least 70 % of the IBS constituents. These show the importance of the application of IBS in building industry.
On the other manus, the sweetening of engineering in IBS is besides introduced to better the productiveness of the building. CIDB besides prepares several programmes of advancing industrialized edifices, modular coordination and system embrace of prefabrication engineering ( CIDB and Chan, E.H.W. , 2005 ) . The productiveness of IBS can cut down the trust on the work force.
But in the current scenario of the building industry in Malaysia, the issue on cut downing dependance on foreign workers is great concern as still has 52 % of the building works is foreign workers ( CREAM and CIDB, 2010 ) . This is far from outlook in IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 which hope to less the foreign labor until 15 % in twelvemonth 2009. By utilizing the IBS, it hopes to cut down the dependence on foreign labor and salvage on the foreign exchange ( Abdul Rahman, A. B. and Omar, W, 2006 ) .
Therefore the survey on the comparing on IBS and conventional system is carried out to happen the effectivity of IBS in cut downing the labor needed on site, particularly the decrease of the foreign labor. The comparing of figure of locals of affecting in the IBS and conventional building besides will be studied. Furthermore, the labour productiveness of the work force in both building methods is besides investigated for the efficiency of the labor in site. Last but non least, skill betterment in IBS besides will be studied.
1.3 Aim and Aims
The purpose that initiates this research is to analyze on the comparing on building labor between Industrialised edifice System ( IBS ) and conventional system.
The research is carried out to accomplish the aims below:
To analyze the feature of IBS and conventional system in building industry Malaysia
To analyze on building labor in building industry Malaysia
To place and compare building labor between IBS and conventional edifice system
To find the effectivity of IBS in cut downing dependance on foreign labors
To find the labour productiveness in both IBS and conventional edifice system
1.4 Scope of Study
The range of this research focal point on the comparing of the building labours needed in similar lodging undertaking characteristic by utilizing different building method ( IBS and conventional system ) . The research besides will be used to place whether IBS is effectual in managing the issue of the trust on foreign labors and besides increase the figure of skill labors in building industry. It besides reviews if the locals will affect IBS undertakings more than conventional building undertakings. The productiveness of the labor in two building methods besides will be reviewed.
1.5 Research Methodology
The research methodological analysis is schemed to transport out in the phases of literature reappraisal, informations aggregation, informations analysis and last but non least, the decision and recommendation.
In the first and the earliest phase, the literature reappraisal on the IBS, conventional system and building labors in building industry Malaysia will be carried out. The relevant information can derive from books, diaries, articles, magazines, newspaper, and conference proceeding documents, cyberspace and other dependable beginnings.
Following that, the questionnaires of research are distributed to the selected investigate parties on the research aspects. Furthermore, interview will be conducted with the contractors who involve in IBS and conventional building undertakings. Relevant undertaking information will be obtained from the interview individuals excessively for the information analysis. Data analysis will be carried out by utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods toward the questionnaire consequences and the interviewers ‘ information. Case surveies besides will be analysis based on the undertaking inside informations provided. Discussion will be conducted on the findings of the consequences.
Last, the decision and recommendations are proposed to advance the usage of IBS in the building industry Malaysia. Furthermore, the suited ways to increase the accomplishments of the building labours in the building industry will besides be suggested.
Chart 1.1 Research Methodologies
1.6 Limitation of Study
The restriction of the survey helps to concentrate on the survey countries that should be accent on during the research advancement. In this research, it will concentrate on the edifice building companies in Malaysia, which the names will be obtained from the list of directory CIDB. The survey will concentrate more on the edifice building companies which involves both of IBS and conventional building method for the easiness of comparing. The interviews will besides be carried out on the similar standards as the questionnaire study parties.
1.7 Significant of Study
The survey on this subject is hoped to allow the populace know more about IBS and besides conventional building method. This can besides help to advance the usage of IBS system in the building industry Malaysia. Furthermore, the consciousness of the decrease of the labor in IBS can be inserted to the parties in Malaysia and therefore the execution of IBS undertaking can increase. Last but non least, the survey can move as consequence study that the effectivity of IBS in managing the foreign labour issue and pull the local labor. The labour productiveness estimated in the survey can be used to gauge the labor input and crew size in the future undertakings.
1.8 Work Plan
The advancement on the academic undertaking is started in August 2010 and estimated to be ended in March 2011. The undertakings are divided into several phases and will be carried out as the agenda below:
The research lineation layout is proposed to divide into 7 chapters which show as below:
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Industrialized Constructing Systems ( IBS ) & A ; Conventional Building System
Chapter 3: Labor
Chapter 4: Research Methodology
Chapter 5: Consequence and Case Studies
Chapter 6: Datas Analysis
Chapter 7: Decision and Recommendation
INDUSTRIALISED Building SYSTEMS ( IBS ) & A ; CONVENTIONAL BUILDING SYSTEM
CIDB defined IBS as a building technique in which constituents are industries in a controlled environment ( on or off site ) , transported, positioned and assembled into a construction with minimum extra site plants.
CIDB ( 2010 ) described that IBS has similar definition with Offsite Construction ( OSC ) , Modern Method of Construction ( MMC ) , Offsite Manufacturing ( OSM ) , Offsite Production ( OSP ) , Production ( OSP ) , prefabrication, and modularization. Similarly, Abdullah, M.R. et Al. ( 2009 ) stated that IBS is besides defined as mass production of edifice constituents, Industrialised Building, pre-assembly, precast edifice, precast building or non-traditional edifice.
2.1 History of IBS
The IBS system already was adopted in building Malaya in twelvemonth 1964 to construct quality houses in rapid building clip. IBS was introduced by Ministry of Housing and Local Government after visited several European states and their lodging development plan rating ( Kamar, KA.M. , 2010 ) . The first IBS undertaking consisted of seven blocks of 17 floors flats ( 3,000 units low cost level and 40 store batch ) bing RM 2.5 million was built along Jalan Pekeliling. The building country was about 22.7 estates of land ( Kamar, KA.M. , 2007 ) . Kamar, K.A.M. ( 2010 ) stated that this undertaking was utilizing Danish System of big panels precast concrete wall and board slabs and constructed by JV Gammon & A ; Larsen and Nielsen. This undertaking was finished constructed in 27 months from 1966 to 1968.
The 2nd IBS undertaking was launched in twelvemonth 1965 at Jalan Rifle Range, Penang. The undertaking comprised of 6 blocks of 17 narratives flats and 3 blocks of 18 narratives flats, which done by Hochtief/ Chee Seng utilizing Gallic Estoit System ( Kamar, KA.M. , 2010 ) .
The IBS undertaking done in late 1960-an was described to be low quality edifices, impressed with escape, abandoned undertakings, unpleasant architectural visual aspect and other holdbacks by Abdul Rahman, A.B. and Omar, W. ( 2006 ) . This contributes to the hapless images of IBS in building industry Malaysia and deters the building parties from following IBS in the hereafter.
Between 1981 and 1993, low cost houses and high cost cottages were built in mass in Selangor province utilizing IBS engineering from Praton Haus International ( Kamar, K.A.M. , 2007 ) . Furthermore, other earlier IBS undertakings in Malaysia included Taman Tun Sardon, Penang ( 1000 units of five floors walk up flats ) .
However, as the hapless images from the use of the IBS building and the failure of the closed system, it deters many building parties to alter the conventional building method into IBS. Although much newer engineerings and methods are introduced to advance the usage of IBS, many contractors are instead utilizing the old building methods. Furthermore, there is foreign systems introduced in late sixties and 70s were found to be unsuitable to utilize in conditions and clime in Malaysia. Thus some of the IBs method utilizing in the overseas are unable to be applied in Malaysia.
In the 1990s, IBS building has shown betterment in footings of architectural and structural design with the execution of computing machine engineering. The execution of the IBS in building industry Malaysia is germinating as the method to get the better of the demand of lodging demands. By utilizing IBS method, the building of low cost high rise residential edifices was built in shorter period to provide the lodging demands.
In the ulterior phase, the successful of execution of precast, steel and intercrossed building contributed to the rapid building of quality constructions ( CIDB, 2003 ) . IBS is many applied in many mega undertakings during the flourish period 1995 until 1998, such as Kuala Lumpur Conventional Centre ( KLCC ) , Bukit Jalil Sport Complex, Lightweight Railway Train ( LRT ) , KL Sentral Station, KL Tower and others. The development of new administrative capital, Putrajaya and Cyberjaya are besides utilizing IBS building method ( Kamar, K.A.M. , 2010 ) .
Now, the usage of IBS as building method is germinating by utilizing the new engineering from foreign states and besides developing ain new engineering ( Kamar, K.A.M. , 2010 ) .
2.2 Characteristic of IBS
Harmonizing to the IBS Survey 2003, foremost of the feature of IBS is the IBS constituents are produced through prefabrication or extremely mechanized procedure in mill. The precast constituents prefabricated in the mill includes slip-forms, station tensioning and tunnel shutters. Furthermore, as the bulk of the work is done offsite, the figure of manpower demand during prefabrication of constituents and site plants can be reduced.
On the other manus, IBS besides involves modern design and fabrication methods. The procedure of planing the prefabricated constituents is technology-aided, such as engagement of Computer Aided Design ( CAD ) and Computer Aided Manufacturing ( CAM ) . The utilizing of the engineering in planing can guarantee the nothing defects of the designed constituents and therefore concept better quality merchandises.
Therefore, with the much more clip offsite, the merchandise produced in the mill can hold systematic quality control. The merchandise is staying the ISO 9000 rule which ascertains the quality. The checking on the quality besides been done in mill for the interest of quality control.
Last, the Open System which is besides applied in IBS besides been considered as one of the feature of IBS. Open system permits intercrossed applications, which enable the merchandises adapt to standardization and Modular Coordination ( MC ) .
2.3 Type of IBS
There are five IBS structural chief groups used in building industry Malaysia ( CIDB, 2003 ) , which include precast concrete framing, panel and box ; steel formwork systems ; steel bordering systems ; prefabricated timber bordering systems and block work systems.
2.3.1 Precast concrete framing, panel and box
This type of system is the most common type of IBS. It normally used as precast column, beams, slabs, lasting concrete formwork, 3-D constituents such as balconies, stairway, lavatories, lift Chamberss and others ( CIDB, 2003 ) .
Steel formwork systems
This type of the system is considered as “ least prefabricated ” IBS, as it by and large involve site casting and capable to structural quality control, high quality merchandises, faster building period and less manpower and material demands. This includes tunnel signifiers, beams and columns modeling signifiers, permanents steel formworks and others ( CIDB, 2003 ) .
Steel bordering systems
This type of system is a popular pick and normally used in skyscrapers. The system is used to build steel beams and columns, portal frames, roof trusses and others.
Prefabricated lumber bordering systems
This system is usually use as lumber frames, roof trusses and others. By utilizing lumber as stuffs of IBS, it provides nice designs apart from merely building simple home. The edifice built can hold higher aesthetical values.
Block work systems
The conventional bricks can be replaced by utilizing the block work produced in IBS system. The merchandises produced including meshing concrete masonry units ( CMU ) , lightweight concrete blocks and others. The clip devouring traditional brick-laying undertakings can be simplified by utilizing the units produced in the mill.
The edifice constituents of IBS are non limited to the proprietor or certain owner.
Form or visual aspect of common constituents has been determined the size and size
The benefits of betaking IBS as building method are plentifulness.
CREAM and CIDB ( 2010 ) stated that the debut of IBS by authorities is to cut down the manual work by traveling the plants to mill. It besides transforms the image of building industry into better image and therefore can pull more locals to take part in building industry.
2.8.1 Sheltered and controlled environment
2.8.2 Insistent production give rise the operational efficiency and economic systems of big graduated table production
2.8.3 Reduce remittals by foreign labor ( Haron, N.A. et Al, 2009 )
2.8.4 Reduce the demand of formwork on site as the re-usable metal signifier is intentionally made in the mill
Less site stuff and cleansing agent and orderly environment- repetitive of formwork and staging
Decrease in wastage as the support and concrete can command better
Less site stuff and cleansing agent and orderly environment- repetitive of formwork and staging
Produce quality controlled merchandises in mill
Less labour intensifier ( Nurul Azam Haron, Hamzah Abdul Rahman, Mahanim Hanid, 2009 )
Faster production of edifice constituents
Enhance physique ability ( Low, S.P. & A ; Choong, J.C. , 2000 )
Faster completion ( Haron, N.A. et Al, 2009 )
2.8.11 Not affected by conditions ( Haron, N.A. et Al, 2009 )
2.8.12 Flexible design ( Haron, N.A. et Al, 2009 )
vagaries of conditions
Immune toward alteration
deficient information/ deficiency of cognition
Lack of engineering method
( Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar, Zuhairi Abdul Hamid, Mohd Khairolden Ghani, Ahmad Hazim Rahim, CREAM, 2007 )
Insufficient push factor
Un-standardize articulations doing it hard to plan
Volume and economic of graduated table
Require preparation ( MBAM 2007 )
( Nurul Azam Haron, Hamzah Abdul Rahman, Mahanim Hanid, 2009 )
52 % is foreign workers from neighboring states, 48 % is local work force. 59 % of the foreign workers are Indonesian, 13 % are from Bangladesh and the remain are from Myanmar, Nepal, India, Vietnam and Sri Lanka.
More involve in private sector than authorities sector, likely because of the promoting usage of IBS in authorities undertaking ( 70 % ) . Most of the foreign workers ac t as unskilled labor involve in manual plants on site, for case, carpenter, aˆ¦..
Skill, unskill-define, jobscope
Disadvantage of using foreign labor: ( CIDB, 2003 )
Increase the escape of Ringgit Malaysia ( RM ) to foreign states
Bringing negative impacts in the societal and cultural context
Wayss to increase accomplishments ( CIDB, 2003 )
Prepare big fund for research, for illustration CREAM
Training and advancing programmes, for illustration CIDB preparation
Research and Development Programmes to develop advanced IBS application, for illustration preparation in the accomplishment of put ining the precast constituents on site
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