Anatomy and Physiology of the Face for City and Guild Level 2 Beauty Therapy Essay

Page 1. Introduction Task 1 Page 2. Labelled diagram of the Bones of the cranium. Page 3. Labelled diagram of Bones of the face. Page 4. Labelled diagram of the bones neck, chest & shoulder. Task 2 Page 5. Labelled diagram showing the position of the Muscles of the face. Page 6. Labelled diagram showing the Muscles that move the head Page 7 . Chart showing the action and location of the muscle of the face. Task 3 Page 8 (A). Describe briefly the function and composition of blood. Page 9 (A) Describe briefly the function and composition of blood.

Page 10 (A) Describe briefly the function and composition of blood. Page 11. (B) Describe briefly the function and composition of lymph. Page 12. (B) Describe briefly the function and composition of lymph. Page 13. C). Explain how blood and lymph improve the skin and muscle condition during a facial massage treatment. Task 4. Page 14. Explain how the natural ageing process affect’s facial skin and muscle tone. Page 15. Explain how the natural ageing process affect’s facial skin and muscle tone. Page 16. Conclusion. Page 17 Index.

Page 18. Bibliography. Introduction The objective for doing this assignment is to learn the bones and muscle structure of the face and neck and the upper body and where the muscle are and the actions the muscles do. Also to research and to learn the function and composition of blood and to learn the function and composition of the lymph and to learn how the blood and lymph improve the skin and muscle condition during a facial massage and to learn how the natural ageing process affect’s the facial skin and muscle tone. Task 1

Draw a large clearly labelled diagram to illustrate the positions of the bones of the skull, neck and shoulder girdle. Bones of the cranium. Bones of the face. Bones of the neck, chest & shoulder back Task 2 A) draw clearly and label a diagram showing the position of the following muscles. Muscles of the face. Muscles that move the head Task 2 (B). List the action of each muscle. Muscle ActionLocation FrontalisWrinkles the forehead and raises eyebrows creating a surprised expressionAcross the forehead Pectoralis Major.

Moves the arm away from the side of the bodyFront of the chest RisoriusPulls the corner of the mouth upwards and sideways as in grinningCorner of the mouth above Buccinator muscle Orbicularis OculiCloses and opens the eye as in winking and blinkingSurrounding the orbit of the eye Sternocleido-mastoidIndividually rotates the head to one side together pulls the chin onto the chestEither side of the neck Corrugator Draws eyebrows together as in frowningInner corners of the eyebrows Deltoid Brings the arm forward.

Takes the arm backwards and sideways Caps the top of the shoulder is a three headed muscle Buccinator Compresses the cheeks as in blowingForms the main muscle of the cheek ZygomaticusPulls the corners of mouth upwards and sidewaysRuns down cheek to corner of mouth Temporalis Raises and lowers jaw when chewingRound and behind ear running down side of face towards jaw Mentalis Raises the lower lip causing chin to wrinkleSituated on the chin Orbicularis OrisCloses and opens the mouthA sphincter muscle surrounding the mouth TrapeziusRaises the shoulder to the ear. Pulls the head backwards.

Across upper back, neck and shoulders PlatysmaDepresses lower jaw and lip wrinkling skin tissue on neckFront and side of the neck, down to collar bones MasseterLifts, lowers and closes the jaw aiding mastication by exerting pressure on teeth. Runs at an angle down the face from the cheek bone to the jaw Quadratus labii superiorisRaises and draws back the upper lips and nostrilsSurrounds the upper lips. Depressor LabiiDepresses the lower lip and draws it down slightly on one sideSurround the lower lip TriangularisDraws down the mouths cornersCorners of the lower lip extends over the chin Nasalis

Closes and opens the nasal openingsCovers the front of the nose Procerus Wrinkles the skin over the bridge of the noseCovers the bridge of the nose OccipitalisMoves the scalpBack of the head Task 3 (A). Describe briefly the function and composition of blood. Blood is a red fluid that contains a complex mixture of cells suspended in a liquid matrix which is transported (circulated) throughout the body by the circulatory system of an organism. It circulates around the body by the heart and delivers oxygen and other important nutrients to cells of organs and tissues, while at the same time, removing waste product from our body.

Blood is located in almost every part of our body, which is due to the network of blood vessels called the circulatory system. It is circulated through the body’s heart, arteries, veins and capillaries (tiny vessels that connect arteries and veins). In order for blood to carry out its functions, it needs to circulate all over our body to all living cells and tissues which it does through the support of the heart that pumps blood throughout our entire body). Thus, it is the fluid of life, a vital life force that all humans need in order to live and sustain life.

General function of blood 1. Distribution/Transportation: Transportation of dissolved gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen), nutrients, enzymes, blood cells (white blood cells ‘leucocytes’ and red blood cells ‘erythrocytes’), hormones and metabolic wastes. Explanation: A). Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells of organs and tissues and carbon dioxide from those organs and tissues to the lungs inside our body. B) It carries hormones from endocrine glands towards their target cells to the kidneys for excretion.

C) Blood distributes nutrients absorbed at the digestive tract or released from storage in adipose tissue (a body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy) or in the liver. These nutrients includes glucose, amino acids, micro-nutrients such as vitamins & minerals), fatty acids and glycerol. 2. Regulation: Controls and maintain normal pH. The regulation of the pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids (fluid situated between parts or in the interstices of a tissue. ) Explanation: Maintains the balance of acid-base metabolism as well as, to absorb and neutralize acids that are made by active cell tissues.

For example, lactic acid produced by skeletal muscles. The pH of blood must remain in the range 6. 8 to 7. 4. If it falls out of this range then this will initiate and result in the destruction of cells. Maintains the stabilization of Body Temperature. Explanation: Blood gains heat by absorbing the heat generated by active skeletal muscles and from deep seated organs in the body which it redistributes over the body to other organs and tissues. If the body temperature is already high then the heat will be lost at the surface of the skin.

Conversely, if the body temperature is very low then the heat will be taken directly to the brain, as well as, to other temperature sensitive organs inside the body. 3. Maintains fluid volume. Explanation: Salts and proteins in the blood maintain diffusion gradients to prevent fluid loss from bloodstream. Excess salt is removed from the body in urine. 4. Defense against pathogens and toxins A) Blood contains different types of white blood cells where each have specific roles in which they fight infections or remove cell debris.

White blood cells are always patrolling the circulatory system similar to that of a police to protect the body from harmful pathogens and toxins. When there is an infection or invasion by pathogens, they quickly migrate to the infected area and attack the pathogens or toxins. B) There are also antibodies that the blood carries that attack and kill invading pathogens (organism) or foreign compounds. 5. The prevention of blood loss at an injury site(s) – Blood clotting: Blood contain enzymes and other substances that respond to a break in the wall of a blood vessel by initiating the blood clotting process.

This acts as a temporary patch that prevents further loss of blood. Composition of Blood Blood consists of many components (constituents). This unique composition of blood that makes up its volume includes: A) 55% Plasma B) 45% formed elements , i. e. blood cells and cell fragments (platelets). Of these 99% are red blood cells and the other 1% are white blood cells and platelets. The diagram shows a test tube containing blood which when left undisturbed separates into a pale liquid called plasma and a solid layer of blood cells. Plasma

Plasma is mainly made up of water (90-92 %) which is a pale yellow sticky fluid component of the blood. It is the liquid part of the blood and contains significant quantities of dissolved proteins. These plasma proteins are albumins, globulins and fibrinogen- a clotting factor. It also contains chemicals substances such as hormones, antibodies, enzymes, glucose, fat particles, salts, etc. Function: A) Provides the medium through which the blood cells are transported around the body B) Helps to control the pH of the blood and the body tissues. This provides the right environment in which cell thrive to carry out their roles effectively.

C) Helps to maintain an ideal balance of fluid volume. D). Helps to maintain an optimum body temperature throughout the body of an organism Blood cells. Blood cells are made in the bone marrow by blood ‘stem’ cells. There are three types of blood cells. A) Red Blood Cells (also called Erythrocytes, pronounced: ih-rith-ruh-sytes). These are biconcave shaped cells that look like wheel of a car that has a depressed surface at both its end. This unique surface shape of red blood cells is to maximize its surface area in order to facilitate the carrying of oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules.

Their primary function is to carry oxygen from the lungs ( during inhalation) to the cells all around the body and carbon dioxide (a waste product) from the cells to the lung (during exhalation). Here it drops off the carbon dioxide molecules and pick up oxygen molecules and thus, keep repeating the cycle. They do this through haemoglobin (pronounced: hee-muh-glow-bun), an iron containing protein that actually carries the oxygen throughout the body and gives blood its red colour. One drop of blood contains about five million red cells. B)White cells (also called leukocytes, pronounced: loo-kuh-sytes).

These cells primary role is to defend the body against pathogens – disease producing bacteria, viruses and fungi. These are colourless cells and that possess a nucleus unlike that of red blood cells. There are different types of white cells such as neutrophils (polymorphs), lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils. They are all part of the immune system and are mainly involved in combating infection. In the blood stream, there are about 600 red blood cells for every white blood cell. C) Platelets (also called thrombocytes, pronounced: throm-buh-sytes).

These are very small cell fragments that are irregularly shaped, colourless with a sticky surface that help in the clotting process by sticking to the lining of blood vessels. Thus, whenever a blood vessel become damaged (tear) their purpose is to prevent loss of blood by clumping together to form a plug to stop bleeding and then secrete other chemicals that help the blood to clot and the blood vessel to be repaired. Platelets are made in the bone marrow and survive in the circulatory system for an average of 9 days before being removed from the body by the spleen B) Describe briefly the function and composition of lymph. The lymphatic system plays a central role in building immune response. It enables the body to rid itself of bacteria and viruses, and produces lymphocytes, powerful “fighter cells. ” It removes toxins that originated in the environment and toxic waste products that our cells produce as part of their metabolism. If these toxins are not removed, they can build up in the blood and eventually poison us. The lymphatic system consists of the lymphoid organs, which are spread throughout the body.

These are the bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and spleen, as well as the adenoids and tonsils. The lymphatic system and lymphoid organs get their name because they are concerned with the growth, development, and deployment of lymphocytes, white blood cells that are key to the immune system. Bone marrow. Bone marrow is the soft tissue in the centre of all the bones in the body. It produces both red and white blood cells. The white blood cells created in bone marrow can be further divided into two types: lymphocytes and phagocytes.

These two types of white blood cells are the immune system’s front-line fighters. Bone marrow also houses the lymphocytes known as B cells until they reach maturity. B cells fight disease by secreting antibodies into the body fluid. These antibodies fight bacteria and viruses. Thymus. The thymus is located near the top of the lungs and behind the breastbone. It is a key to immune response. Lymphocytes known as T cells get their name from the thymus because after bone marrow produces them, they are passed on to the thymus, which fosters their development.

T cells both regulate immune response and attack infected or malignant body cells. The thymus also acts as the central clearinghouse of immune response, passing lymphocytes into the lymphatic system, which transports them to where they are needed. Lymphatic vessels. The lymphatic vessels are the arteries that carry white blood cells throughout the body. White cells also can travel in the blood, but the lymphatic vessels are better equipped to transport the waste materials that the white blood cells pick up. Like small creeks that empty into larger and larger rivers, the lymphatic vessels feed into larger and larger channels.

At the base of the neck, they merge and their contents are discharged into the bloodstream, which carries the wastes to the kidney for processing and removal from the body. Lymph nodes and spleen. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped stopping points spread throughout the body. They are “wait stations” for white blood cells to congregate until they are needed to fight an invading pathogen. Clumps of lymphoid tissue are found in most parts of the body, especially in the linings of the digestive tract and the airways and lungs—all the places where pathogens can enter the body.

These lymphatic tissues include the tonsils, adenoids, and the appendix. The spleen also contains special compartments where white blood cells gather and work. All told, the lymphatic system is composed of literally hundreds of miles of lymphatic vessels and nodes. It is key to the elimination of waste products generated throughout the body. Dead cells, one of the major components of this waste, collect in the lymph nodes, where they are passed on to the bloodstream, which, in turn, delivers them to the lungs, kidneys, colon, and skin for elimination from the body.

Together, all of the organs that make up the lymphatic system work to protect us from disease and illness. Helping the Lymphatic System. Throughout the ages, those interested in health have discovered a number of natural ways to help maintain a healthy lymphatic system. The first place to start is by drinking plenty of water. Making sure the body is well-hydrated will help the lymphatic system do its job of flushing toxins and waste from the body. Try to drink eight to ten glasses of pure water per day. Bouncing on a rebounder—a “mini-trampoline”—for five to 15 minutes per day can help drain the lymphatic system.

Brushing your skin is also helpful. This also stimulates the lymphatic system to discharge toxins. After rising in the morning, use a brush with stiff bristles and brush the skin. C). Explain how blood and lymph improve the skin and muscle condition during a facial massage treatment. When we have a facial or body massage the muscles in our bodies receive an improved supply of oxygenated blood and nutrients, this improves the tone and strength of the muscles. The oxygenated blood makes the facial contours become firmer and the increase in blood circulation creates warmth in the tissues and tensed muscles become more relaxed.

This allows the blood capillaries to dilate so the blood can flow closer to the skins surface. The lymphatic circulation is increased and speeds up the removal of toxins and waste, this purifies the skin improving both its appearance and colour and texture and make the skin look and feel softer to the touch. Task 4 Explain how the nautral ageing process affects’s facial skin and muscle tone. Skin and the ageing process. The ageing process is determined by biological changes within the skin: from conception to birth, body cells multiply fast to allow for rapid development and growth.

However, from the moment we are born, this process gets slower and slower, with a number of key stages in our development affecting the skin greatly: puberty, pregnancy and the menopause continuing into old age. These changes can mainly be put down to fluctuations and changes in hormonal levels as we get older these hormones are oestrogen, progesterone and androgen at the time a woman starts to go through the menopause. The skin may become drier as both the sebaceous and sudoriferous glands slow down their activity.

The skin loses elasticity as elastin fibres harden and wrinkles appear as collagen fibres start to cross link and harden. The epidermis begins to grow more slowly and as a result the skin appears thinner almost transparent in some areas eg; the eyes where small capillaries can show through the skin. Broken capillaries show on the cheek area and around the nose. Facial contours become slacker as muscle tone reduces, and as the supportive layer of fatty tissue becomes thinner bone structure becomes more obvious. Blood circulation may not be as good so nutrition of the skin can suffer and this gives a sallow appearance to the skin.

The metabolic rate also slows down so this means that waste products are not removed as efficiently leading to puffiness of the skin. Mature clients may have uneven pigmentation of the skin eg; chloasma. The skin may sometimes show these skin conditions although not in every case, sebhorreic warts may develop, dark circles and puffiness may show in the eye area and coarse hair can grow on the lip, chin or both this is due to hormone changes in the body. Changes during puberty ?Increase in hair growth on the face, chest, abdomen, underarms and pubis. The skin thickens and there is an increase in sebaceous gland activity, resulting in more sebum being produced. This makes the surface more oily and prone to skin conditions such as acne vulgaris. Changes during pregnancy Each woman will experience the effects of pregnancy in different ways. However, common changes include the following. ?Skin colour may darken, either in patches or all over. Birthmarks, moles and freckles may also darken. Some women develop chloasma. ?Hair growth may increase during pregnancy, although some women experience an increase in hair loss.

Hair texture may also change, becoming greasier or drier. ?Stretch marks, usually appearing across the abdomen, thighs, hips or breasts, are caused by the breakdown of protein in the skin by the high levels of pregnancy hormones They appear as red streaks which will eventually fade to become pale and barely noticeable. ?The skin often appears to develop a ‘bloom’ due to an increase in the blood circulating around the body. Changes during menopause and into old age. ?The stratum corneum begins to thicken or build up due to a slowing down of the desquamation process.

The rate at which these cells are usually shed is significantly reduced; the result is that skin appears dull and less youthful as time goes by. ?Collagen and elastin fibre production slows down, resulting in a general loss of elasticity and firmness in the skin and a gradual thinning of the dermis. ?Collagen and elastin fibres undergo an irreversible process called ‘cross-linking’, causing fibres to fuse together. This results in puckering and indentations on the skin’s surface that we refer to as lines and wrinkles. ?’Lines of expression’ caused by facial movement appear as the skin loses its resilience. Blood flow is reduced, lessening nutrition to the cells and resulting in a greying of the complexion. ?The production of sebum slows down, resulting in a drier skin texture. ?Melanocytes clump together in the dermis forming patches of pigmentation, commonly known as age spots. ?Hair loses its colour and condition as the regrowth cycle slows down and the production of sebum slows down, reducing the amount of natural hair oil. Conclusion. In this assignment I have learnt the bones and muscle structure of the face and neck and the upper body and where the muscle are and the actions the muscles do.

Also to research and to learn the function and composition of blood and to learn the function and composition of the lymph and to learn how the blood and lymph improve the skin and muscle condition during a facial massage and to learn how the natural ageing process affect’s the facial skin and muscle tone. Index Page 1. Introduction Task 1 Page 2. Labelled diagram of the Bones of the cranium. Page 3. Labelled diagram of Bones of the face. Page 4. Labelled diagram of the bones neck, chest ; shoulder. Task 2 Page 5. Labelled diagram showing the position of the Muscles of the face. Page 6.

Labelled diagram showing the Muscles that move the head Page 7 . Chart showing the action and location of the muscle of the face. Task 3 Page 8 (A). Describe briefly the function and composition of blood. Page 9 (A) Describe briefly the function and composition of blood. Page 10 (A) Describe briefly the function and composition of blood. Page 11. (B) Describe briefly the function and composition of lymph. Page 12. (B) Describe briefly the function and composition of lymph. Page 13. C). Explain how blood and lymph improve the skin and muscle condition during a facial massage treatment. Task 4. Page 14.

Explain how the natural ageing process affect’s facial skin and muscle tone. Page 15. Explain how the natural ageing process affect’s facial skin and muscle tone. Page 16. Conclusion Page 17 Index Page 18. Bibliography Bibliography College hand out for the diagrams The internet for information. Course notes and information from other courses done previously at other colleges the course are Level 3 Certificate in Body Massage Level 3 Diploma in Aromatherapy Level 3 Diploma in Indian Head Massage. Level 3 Diploma in Reflexology Level 2 Certificate in Nail Treatments Level 3 Diploma in Advance Nail’s gel.