Ancient Human Remains Lindow Man, Outzi •Places of discovery Lindow Man -Found in a peat bog in Cheshire, England 1984. By two workmen found a foot in their piece of machinery. Outzi Ice Man -Thursday 19th September 1991 by Erica and Helmut Simon as they were mountaineering in the Alps between Austria and Italy. •Describe the Physical appearance of Lindow man and dating of finds Lindow man -Radiocarbon dating techniques was used to date the Lindow man. We found that he died in the first Century. He was between 25-30 years old when he died.
Also they assessed the age of the organic remains of the peat which also gave a similar reading of the Lindow mans age. -He had a brown beard and moustache, which had stepped ends evidenced by the use of scanning electron microscope. Indicating he trimmed with fine scissors. -He had mild arthritis in back and leg, -Good teeth, well manicured nails. (Celts were very clean people as they invented soap). -His torso had a high level of copper pigment, which might have been applied as body paint. As Celtic men in battle use to fight naked covered in body paint. Using atomic absorption spectrometry. -He was probably 1. 8m by using is humerus arm bone. Slightly taller than men of that time. Outzi Ice man -Typology= was used to date the axe said to be from 4000 years ago. From early Bronze Age due to design of the blade. -Scientific testing= on axe shows the level of copper therefore said to be from copper age. -Radio carbon dating= of hip tissue showed that he was 5300 years old. Backed up by testing on grass and pollen found with body. •Explain the effect of the environment on the preservation of the bodies in peat bogs -Bog environments are very important in preserving ancient human remains particularly in NM Europe including Scotland and England. Bogs are characterized as marshy areas with high organic content however they are anaerobic environments where decomposing bacteria cannot survive. As a consequence organic matter is well preserved. -Bogs have chemicals such as tannins that are released from vegetation that has fallen into the bog. Tannins aid the preservation of organic tissue. Without the environment conditions of a bog, bodies would not bee as well preserved. •Explain the possible causes of death, based on forensic evidence and other sources Lindow man -Injuries= He was squashed down flat form the peat and the cutting machine had cut the leg.
Only head, torso and right foot were found. -Visual and x-ray examinations revealed that he was struck on the head twice with a blunt object which fractured his skull. Also struck on the base of the skull. Sacrifice to the three gods. He was hit on the head three times for the god of thunder Taranis. -Had his throat cut to drain blood and was strangled with a rope made of animal sinew, closing off his windpipe and breaking 2 of his neck vertebrae. Condemned criminals during Celtic time were hanged and dragged by the throat as evidenced from Tacitus.
Or also accidental death where rescuers use to put ropes around drowning person’s neck to pull them up. He could also be sacrificed for the second god of the underworld Esus, strangled and throat cut. -Stabbed in the chest, ribs were shattered from heavy blow, perhaps to increase the bleeding before being thrown facedown into a watery bog where he drowned. He was drowned for the third god Teutates where he was placed in the bog to drown. Outzi Ice man -Arrowhead in shoulder= fight which he escaped/ fled to the Alps and took what he could evidence with unfinished arrowheads. other sources of blood. He could have died of blood loss and exposure the elements (cold winds) -Deep defensive hand wounds and a head fracture. •Explain methods on how to reconstruct the lifestyle of these individuals: physical appearance, clothing, evidence of the environment (OUTZI); -Lifestyle ?Occupation could have been a hunter-gatherer as wheat grains found on his clothing therefore grew Emer wheat to make bread. ?Stomach contents red deer and bread, hunted deer and make bread. ?Fungi, which was used as an antibacterial their knowledge of natural remedies. Tattoos close to estimated pressure points for acupuncture. ?Trade copper not found in Southern Alps. ?Hunting due to ibex bone. ?Grass cloak made of grass nets and leather clothes specialisation in village. -Appearance and health ?X-rays found that he had arthritis, old rib fractures, 30-40 years old and worn teeth which concluded that he was an older man with injuries. ?Physical examination found that he was 160 m tall, right arm not used for a few weeks, dark brown wavy hair. Tissue analysis found that he was about 5300 years old, low level of lead poisoning and high cholesterol due to fatty meats. -Clothing Animal hide skin as clothing, which concludes that they knew about the tanning process, they knew how to sew. ?Leggings, loincloth, fur cap, upper garment, poncho, cloak. ?Flint knife had sharp edges Neolithic tool also knife arrowheads. ?Copper axe was rare at this time where we conclude that they’re as some type of specialisation in the community. ?Bows and arrows made from Yew wood good quality not easily accessed in Southern Alps evidence of trade? -Environment ?From bone and teeth they concluded that he was from the southern valley of the Italian Alps. ? He did not travel more than 60 km from that place.
Norwegian maple leaves grown in Southern Alps. Pollen, which he journeyed to the Alps during April-May. •Explain the rituals that are associated with the death of the LINDOW man. Religious beliefs and customs. -Archaeologists state that there was a special festival called Beltain, which was held I time of danger. During this time break was prepared with one piece deliberately burnt. Broken up and given out. The person who got the burnt piece was called the “devoted one” and was sacrificed stated Celtic scholars. Rich turner states that one Celtic custom was triplism or death by three methods for the three Gods.
These methods were found on the Lindow man. -He was hit on the head three times for the god of thunder Taranis. -He could also be sacrificed for the second god of the underworld Esus, strangled and throat cut. -He was drowned for the third god Teutates where he was placed in the bog to drown. -Therefore the greatest hypotheses for the Lindow mans death, was that he was a ritual sacrifice. -Last meal was small he had 20 grams of digested food. Cereal grains and burnt bread. (Celts ate these types of foods. ) Also pollen from mistletoe plant used a sacrificial hallucinogen drug using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. His torso had a high level of copper pigment, which might have been applied as body paint. As Celtic men in battle use to fight naked covered in body paint. Using atomic absorption spectrometry. -Fox fur arm-band, which represents high religious figure. -The Lindow man could have been a Celtic priest as his hands were clean and free of calluses and showed that he was neither a labourer nor a worrier. He had no previous injures and could have been an important man, based on the historian Ross. •Role of science and written sources in reconstructing the past. (OUTZI,LINDOW)