Android Revolution In Mobile Technology Computer Science Essay

Androids Mobile runing system is based on the Linux meat and it is a package stack for nomadic devices. This operating system is one of the universes best-selling Smartphone platform. Android involves many developers composing applications that helps in extended the functionality of the devices. There are presently over 1,50,000 applications available for Android. Android Market is the on-line application shop run by Google, though applications can besides be downloaded from third-party sites. Developers write in the Java linguistic communication.

The unveiling of the Android distribution on 5 November 2007 was announced with the initiation of the Open Handset Alliance, a pool of 80 hardware, package, and telecom companies devoted to progressing unfastened criterions for nomadic devices. Most of the Android codification is released by Google under the Apache License.

The Android open-source package stack consists of Java applications running on a Java-based, object-oriented applicationlication model on top of Java nucleus libraries. Libraries written in C include SQLite relational database direction system, WebKit layout engine, SGL artworks engine, SSL. The Android operating system, including the Linux meat, consists of approximately 12A million lines of codification including 3A million lines of XML, 2.8A million lines of C, 2.1A million lines of Java, and 1.75A million lines of C++ .

hypertext transfer protocol: //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d7/Android_robot.svg/220px-Android_robot.svg.png

Android logo

Ascender Corporation designed the Android logo with the Droid font household.

Version history

After original release, many updates of humanoids have been seen. These updates focal point on repairing bugs every bit good as adding new characteristics. Each new version is developed under a codification name based on a dessert point.

The most recent released versions of Android are:

2.0/2.1 ( Eclair ) , which revamped the user interface and introduced HTML5 and Exchange ActiveSync 2.5 support

2.2 ( Froyo ) , which introduced velocity betterments with JIT optimisation, Wi-Fi and Adobe Flash support

2.3 ( Gingerbread ) , which refined the user interface, improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste characteristics, and added support for Near Field Communication

3.0 ( Honeycomb ) , a tablet-oriented release which supports larger screen devices and introduces many new user interface characteristics, and supports multicore processors and hardware acceleration for artworks.

The approaching version of Android is:

Ice Cream Sandwich, a combination of Gingerbread and Honeycomb into a “ cohesive whole, ” with a possible release in mid-2011.

Architecture

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.krazytech.com/wp-content/uploads/14.jpg

Architecture Diagram

Hardware Running Android

The chief supported platform for Android is the ARM ( Advanced Risc Machines ) architecture.ARM is one of the most accredited and therefore widespread processor nucleuss in the universe. It is used particularly in portable devices due to low power ingestion and sensible public presentation. Now a yearss cell phones, note books and tablets, including the Dell Streak, Samsung Galaxy Tab, Television and other devices can utilize the functionality of Android. HTC Dream was the first phone to run android, released on 22 October 2008.

Features

Current characteristics and specifications:

Application model enabling reuse and replacing of application constituents.

Bluetooth, border, 3G, WiFi support.

Camera GPS, accelerometer support.

GSM telephone support.

Integrated browser based on the unfastened beginning webkit engine

Media support for common audio picture, still image formats.

Android applications: Top 25 applications in the list below.

Googgle voice

Advanced undertaking slayer

Drop box

Evernote

Droid Analytics

Documents to travel

Amazon kindle

Topographic points directory

Tripit

Seesmic

FCC Speedtest

Astro File Manager

Got To Make

Effect

TED Mobile

Pandora

Shazam

Dial Nothing

Google Goggles

Google Skymap

Tricodor

Fxcamera

Photoshop Mobile

Bump

Barcode Scanner

Screen Shooting:

hypertext transfer protocol: //i.techrepublic.com.com/gallery/450062-500-416.jpg

Libraries

Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by assorted constituents of the Android system. These capablenesss are exposed to developers through the Android applicationlication model. Some of the nucleus libraries are listed below:

System C library – a BSD-derived execution of the standard C system library, tuned for embedded Linux-based devices

Media Libraries – based on PacketVideo ‘s OpenCORE ; the libraries support playback and recording of many popular sound and picture formats, every bit good as inactive image files, including MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, and PNG

Surface Manager – manages entree to the show subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D in writing beds from multiple applications

LibWebCore – a modern web browser engine which powers both the Android browser and an embeddable web position

SGL – the underlying 2D artworks engine

3D libraries – an execution based on OpenGL ES 1.0 APIs ; the libraries use either hardware 3D acceleration ( where available ) or the included, extremely optimized 3D package.

FreeType – electronic image and vector fount rendering

SQLite – a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications

Applicationlication Fundamentalss

Android applications are written in the Java scheduling linguistic communication. The Android SDK tools compile the code-along with any informations and resource files-into an Android bundle, an archive file with an.apk postfix. All the codification in a individual.apk file is considered to be one application and is the file that Android-powered devices use to put in the application.

Once installed on a device, each Android application. lives in its ain security sandbox:

The Android operating system is a multi-user Linux system in which each application is a different user.

By default, the system assigns each application a alone Linux user ID ( the ID is used merely by the system and is unknown to the application ) . The system sets permissions for all the files in an application so that merely the user ID assigned to that application can entree them.

Each procedure has its ain practical machine ( VM ) , so an application ‘s codification runs in isolation from other applications.

By default, every application runs in its ain Linux procedure. Android starts the procedure when any of the application ‘s constituents need to be executed, so shuts down the procedure when it ‘s no longer needed or when the system must retrieve memory for other applications.

In this manner, the Android system implements the rule of least privilege. That is, each application, by default, has entree merely to the constituents that it requires to make its work and no more. This creates a really unafraid environment in which an application can non entree parts of the system for which it is non given permission.

However, there are ways for an application to portion informations with other applications and for an application to entree system services:

It ‘s possible to set up for two applications to portion the same Linux user ID, in which instance they are able to entree each other ‘s files. To conserve system resources, applications with the same user ID can besides set up to run in the same Linux procedure and portion the same VM ( the applications must besides be signed with the same certification ) .

An application can bespeak permission to entree device informations such as the user ‘s contacts, SMS messages, the mountable storage ( SD card ) , camera, Bluetooth, and more. All application permissions must be granted by the user at install clip.

Software Development Kit

The Android package development kit ( SDK ) includes a set of development tools viz. a debugger, libraries, a French telephone copycat ( based on QEMU ) , certification, sample codification, and tutorials. Android developer web site helps in downloading SDK. Presently supported development platforms include computing machines running Linux ( any modern desktop Linux distribution ) , Mac OS X 10.4.9 or subsequently, Windows XP or subsequently. Alternatively of utilizing Eclipse ( official IDE ) developers may utilize any text editor to redact Java and XML to make, construct and debug Android applications.

The SDK besides supports older versions of the Android platform in instance developers wish to aim their applications at older devices.

Android applications are packaged in.apk format and stored under /data/application booklet on the Android OS. APK bundle contains.dex files, resource files, etc.

List of those characteristics that android phones do better than the iPhone

Shoping

Desktop

Connectivity

Personal computer Connection

Multi-notification

Endless personalization

Market

Goggle integrating

Open beginning

Op [ en to bearers

Android Market

Android devices are available online in humanoid Market which is developed by Google. “ Market ” works as an application plan which is preinstalled on most Android devices and allows users to shop and download applications.As of December 2010 there were about 200,000 games, applications and doodads available on the Android Market, with an estimated 2.5 billion entire downloads.

In April 2011, Google claims that there have been over 3 billion Android applications installed and downloads of Android applications rush by 50 per centum from Q4 2010.

The Android Market was made to the full accessible on the web, leting users to shop and pick up applications utilizing their Personal computers, send them to their nomadic phone and do remarks on them. All this functionality was antecedently accessible merely from nomadic phone devices.

Security

In March 2011, Google pulled 58 malicious applications from the Android Market which contained Trojans hidden in pirated versions of legitimate applications.

The malware ( called DroidDream ) exploited a bug which was present in versions of Android older than 2.2.2.

AVG and Symantec Security houses have released antivirus package for Android devices.

In August 2010, an SMS Trojan called Trojan-SMS in Android, harmonizing to security house Kaspersky Lab.

Android users were advised non to utilize the Android web browser until Google issues a security spot.

Market Share

Research company Canalys estimated in 2009 that humanoid had a 2.8 % portion of universe widesmart phone cargos. By 2010 this had grown to 33 % of the market, going the top merchandising smart phone platform.

In Feb 2010 Com Score said the android platform had 9 % of the US ache phone market, as measured by current nomadic endorsers. At the terminal of 2010 Android ‘s US Market portion had grown to 21.4 per centum.

Current Distribution

The undermentioned pie chart and tabular array is based on the figure of Android devices that have accessed Android Market within a 14-day period stoping on the informations aggregation day of the month noted below.

hypertext transfer protocol: //chart.apis.google.com/chart? & A ; cht=p & A ; chs=460×250 & A ; chd=t:3.9,6.3,31.4,57.6,0.8 & A ; chl=Android % 201.5|Android % 201.6|Android % 202.1|Android % 202.2|Android % 202.3 & A ; chco=c4df9b,6fad0c

Platform

API Level

Distribution

Android 1.5

3

3.9 %

Android 1.6

4

6.3 %

Android 2.1

7

31.4 %

Android 2.2

8

57.6 %

Android 2.3

9

0.8 %

Data collected during two hebdomads stoping on February 2, 2011