## Answers for Unit 7 Essay

Task03 1. Sensors are used to monitor the pressure and temperature of a chemical solution stored in a vat. The circuitry for each sensor produces a HIGH solution when a specified maximum value is exceeded. An alarm requiring a LOW voltage input must be activated when either the pressure or the temperature (or both) is excessive.

Draw a truth table with the desired inputs and outputs and from that design a circuit for this application. Two inputs > P T P – Pressure T – Temperature If either the pressure or the temperature or both parameters increases the specified value, a high voltage must be produced.Those high voltages must be converted to low voltages and supplied to the alarm to make rings. |P |T |Output (A) | |0 |0 |0 | |0 |1 |1 | |1 |0 |1 | |1 |1 |1 | > F= PT _ > F= PT > F= PT _ _ F= PT+ PT+ PT _ _ F= PT+ PT+PT _ _ F= P (T+T) + PT _ F= P + PT P T _ F= P + PT 2. Digital circuit has three inputs A, B and C and three outputs X, Y and Z.

The truth table is given below. Determine separate Boolean expressions for X, Y and Z and draw the logical diagram. C |B |A | X | Y | Z | |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 |0 | |0 |0 |1 |0 |1 |0 | |0 |1 |0 |0 |1 |0 | |0 |1 |1 |0 |0 |1 | |1 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 | |1 |0 |1 |0 |1 |0 | |1 |1 |0 |1 |0 |0 | |1 |1 |1 |0 |0 |1 | For “X” Output _ _ _ _ X = A B C + A B C _ _ _ X= A (B C + B C) A B C _ _ _ X= A (B C + B C) For “Y” Output _ _ _ _ _ _ _Y= A B C + A B C + A B C + A B C _ _ _ _ _ _ = A B (C+C) + A B C + A B C _ _ _ _ _ = A B + A B C + A B C ABC _ _ _ _ _ Y = A B + A B C + A B C [pic] For “Z” Output _ Z = A B C + A B C _ = A B (C + C) = A B A Z= A B B Task01: Develop a computerized system IDM Computer Studies (Pvt) Ltd wants to change its entire manual system to a computerized system to face the changes in Information and Communication technology in the new millennium. For the above change, you should gather information in the following to carryout the changes in the organization. Describe the followings according to the given situation i.

Describe ten different packages which are suitable for the given situation with the reason. ii. Explain the student registration system with a suitable Information processing method. iii. Describe the most suitable Application software for the situation. Task 02 Describe using diagrams/pictures two of the following applications. Explain what does and what processing takes place.

i. A payroll system ii. A Booking system iii. A Supermarket checkout system iv. An Electricity billing system Task 03 1. Sensors are used to monitor the pressure and temperature of a chemical solution stored in a vat. The circuitry for each sensor produces a HIGH voltage when a specified maximum value is exceeded.

An alarm requiring a LOW voltage input must be activated when either the pressure or the temperature (or both) is excessive. Draw a truth table with the desired inputs and outputs and from that design a circuit for this application. 2. Digital circuit has three inputs A, B and C and three outputs X, Y and Z.

The truth table is given below. Determine separate Boolean expressions for X, Y and Z and draw the logical diagram. |C |B |A | X | Y | Z | |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 |0 | |0 |0 |1 0 |1 |0 | |0 |1 |0 |0 |1 |0 | |0 |1 |1 |0 |0 |1 | |1 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 | |1 |0 |1 |0 |1 |0 | |1 |1 |0 |1 |0 |0 | |1 |1 |1 |0 |0 |1 | Task 04 i. What is e-commerce? ii. What is the Models of Electronic commerce? Task04 1. What is e-Commerce? E-commerce covers any form of business transaction or information exchange that is executed using any form of Information and Communication Technology” -UK’s e-center- This includes various types such as transactions among business –to- business (B2B), business –to- consumers (B2C), consumer-to-business (C2B), consumer-to- consumer (C2C), government-to-consumer (G2C), m-commerce and various new methods.

It is supported and it has strengthened with modern IT tools like Internet and the World Wide Web, Intranets, Extranets, Electronic Mail and Electronic Data Interchange. Brief description about the evolvement of e-commerce The meaning of electronic commerce has changed over the last 30 years. Its importance and necessity has been increasing since its inception.Because of the great value of the time for money based economy, people/ merchants/business organization were used to find ways to reduce the loss or to increase the profit by increasing the efficiency of their businesses. They used computers and telecommunication methods like Morse codes, telephones, etc independently marking the inception of e-commerce, respectively to automate administrative & clerical systems and to exchange business information.

Due to the emergence of the Information Technology (IT) era because of the convergence of computing and telecommunication technologies in early 1970s, the e-commerce was greatly modified. It enabled them to process business data into information using computers and exchanges them at that moment using integrated communication facilities.The great impact on e-commerce is due to the emergence of ICT era; Information and Communication Technology era as IT was further integrated with other Communication Technologies in early 1990s. Development and the distribution of computer networks (Local Area Networks-LANs), and their connectivity forming (Wide Area Networks-WANs) further distributed globally because of the networks of WANs ; Internet. E-commerce greatly depends on these networks. Detailed description about the evolvement of e-commerce The meaning of electronic commerce has changed over the last 30 years. Originally, electronic commerce meant the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT).These were both introduced in the late 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically.

The growth and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic commerce. Another form of e-commerce was the airline reservation system typified by Sabre in the USA and Tragicomic in the UK. From the 1990s onwards, electronic commerce would additionally include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP), data mining and data warehousing. An early example of many-to-many electronic commerce in physical goods was the Boston Computer Exchange, a marketplace for used computers launched in 1982.An early online information marketplace, including online consulting, was the American Information Exchange, another pre Internet online system introduced in 1991. In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee invented the Worldwide Web web browser and transformed an academic telecommunication network into a worldwide everyman everyday communication system called internet/www.

Commercial enterprise on the Internet was strictly prohibited until 1991. Although the Internet became popular worldwide around 1994 when the first internet online shopping started, it took about five years to introduce security protocols and DSL allowing continual connection to the Internet. By the end of 2000, many European and American business companies offered their services through the World Wide Web.Since then people began to associate a word “ecommerce” with the ability of purchasing various goods through the Internet using secure protocols and electronic payment services. Timeline of e-commerce ? 1979:Michael Aldrich  invented online shopping ? 1981:Thomson Holidays, UK is first B2B online shopping ? 1982: Minitel was introduced nationwide in France by France Telecom and used for online ordering. ? 1984: Gateshead SIS/Tesco is first B2C online shopping and Mrs.

Snowball, 72, is the first online home shopper ? 1985: Nissan UK sells cars and finance with credit checking to customers online from dealers’ lots. ? 1987: Swreg begins to provide software and shareware authors means to sell their products online through an electronic Merchant account. 1990: Tim Berners-Lee writes the first we browser, WorldWideWeb, using a NeXT computer. ? 1992: J. H.

Snider and Terra Ziporyn publish Future Shop: How New Technologies Will Change the Way We Shop and What We Buy. St. Martin’s Press. ? 1994:Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla.

Pizza Hut offers online ordering on its Web page. The first online bank opens. Attempts to offer flower delivery and magazine subscriptions online. Shoplet is established, attempting to sell boats and cars. Adult materials also become commercially available, as do cars and bikes.

Netscape 1. 0 is introduced in late 1994 SSL encryption that made transactions secure. ? 1995: Jeff Bezos launches Amazon. om and the first commercial-free 24 hour, internet-only radio stations, Radio HK and NetRadio start broadcasting.

Dell and Cisco begin to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions. eBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as Auction Web. ? 1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web. ? 1999:Business.

com sold for US \$7. 5 million to eCompanies, which was purchased in 1997 for US \$149,000. The peer-to-peer file sharing software Napster launches. ATG Stores launches to sell decorative items for the home online. ? 2000:The dot-com bust.

? 2002:eBay acquires PayPal for \$1. 5 billion.Niche retail companies CSN Stores and   are founded with the concept of selling products through several targeted domains, rather than a central portal. ? 2003: Amazon. com posts first yearly profit. ? 2007: Business. com acquired by R. H.

Donnelley for \$345 million. ? 2009: Zappos. com acquired by Amazon. com for \$928 million.

Retail Convergence, operator of private sale website RueLaLa. com, acquired by GSI Commerce for \$180 million, plus up to \$170 million in earn-out payments based on performance through 2012. ? 2010:US eCommerce and Online Retail sales projected to reach \$173 billion, an increase of 7 percent over 2009. Some common applications of related to electronic commerce are as follows, ? Email Enterprise content management ? Instant messaging ? Newsgroups ? Online shopping and order tracking ? Online banking ? Online office suites ? Domestic and international payment systems ? Shopping cart software ? Teleconferencing ? Electronic tickets Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering “digital” content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to “meta” services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce. On the consumer level, electronic commerce is mostly conducted on the World Wide Web.

An individual can go online to purchase anything from books or groceries, to expensive items like real estate.Another example would be online banking, i. e. online bill payments, buying stocks, transferring funds from one account to another, and initiating wire payment to another country. All of these activities can be done with a few strokes of the keyboard. On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce today.

Impact on markets and retailers e-Commerce has a great impact on intensifying the competition between business organizations hence increasing profits.By providing updated details about consumer items and reducing the time taken for buy goods customer satisfaction can be increased. It can also be increased by providing more safety to customer and making easier their purchasing opportunities. Tele-banking, Tele-medicine, online ordering & purchasing facilities are few examples for that. Considering the business’s point of view, e-commerce is important in many ways. The losses which are occurred due to late supply of raw materials or products can be reduced by maintaining an efficient information system between suppliers and the business. It also cause for the reduction of losses due to mistakes happen in exchanging purchasing orders and invoices.Governments can use e-commerce to enhance the Inland Revenue system, reduce losses in government sector institutes, to use veteran government officers’ service to rural areas using tele-medicine, tele- conferencing, etc.

2. What are the Models of Electronic Commerce? There are various types or models of e-commerce, as indicated in the following list. I. Business-to-Business (B2B) II.

Business-to-Consumer (B2C) III. Consumer-to-Business (C2B) IV. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) V. Intrabusiness Commerce VI. Government-to-Citizens (G2C) and others VII. Collaborative Commerce (c-commerce) VIII.

Mobile commerce (m-commerce) I. Business-to-Business (B2B) Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer.Business-to-Government (B2G) also has the same idea which is mentioned above.

The term B2B describes the conucting the business electronically of doing the communication electronically between busieness or enterprises. At present B2B uses to describe all the products and services used by the industry but it was firstly used to do industrial or capital goods marketing. In B2B we can identify many advantages. Some of them are the direct interaction with the customers. As a result enterprises can build a good relationship with their customers which may cause a huge boost in their sales in future,as well as it will increase the profitability too.

Another one is focused on sales promotion.The information indicates about their cutomers’ reqiurements and needs. As well as B2B will increase the business customer loyalty. Another one is it wll save the distribution costs. Because a company can make huge savings in distribution ,logistical and after sales support costs by using e-business models because e-business model involve the customer in the business interaction to such a level that companies are able to avoid setting up the huge backbone of sales and support force. There are four key area of business-to-business e-commerce. Those are EDI,Enhanced Messaging, Teleconferencing and Intergrated Systems which include Intanets and Database Publishing.

EDI which stands for Electronic Data Interchange describes the transformation of data from application to application regardless of platform or operatimg system, without human intervention. It is used to transfer electronic documents or business data from one computer system to another computer system. For instance to send invoies, purchasing orders interest payments and etc. Not only in trading industires EDI is widely used in Banking,Government and Health Sector. In EDI human intervention is less. It is said like that because in EDI, the usual procesing of received messages is done by cmputers only. Human intervention in the processing of a received message is typically intended only for error conditionsa and quality review.

The transformation if data is done according to a specific standard. Eg: UN/EDIFACT, ANSI X12. Enhanced messaging is where the information can be taken directly form application to application. It is an application-level extension to Short Message Service (SMS) for cellular phones available on GSM, TDMA and CDMA networks. EMS is an intermediate technology, between SMS and MMS, providing some of the features of MMS. EMS is a technology that is designed to work with existing networks, but may ultimately be made obsolete by MMS. E-mail enables messages to be sent quickly to one or many business contacts.

Voice-mail could do the same thing with recorded messages.Enhanced fax enables people to send and receive faxes form their own computer and convert them to text files using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Software. A teleconference also known as “teleseminar” is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system. Terms such as audio conferencing, telephone conferencing and phone conferencing are also sometimes used to refer to teleconferencing.

When the teleconferencing uses cameras to send pictures it is called video conferencing, and participants can see atill or motion video images of each other.The telecommunications system may support the teleconference by providing either audio, video, and/or data services by one or more means, such as telephone, computer, telegraph, teletype, radio, and television. Internet teleconferencing includes internet telephone conferencing, videoconferencing,webconferencing and Augmented Reality conferencing. At present there are many popular software for personal use in teleconferencing such as Skype, Gogle Talk, Windows Live Messenger and Yahoo Messenger. Interated Sytems-various ways of integrating systems have emerged which enable the sharing and management of resources,Integrated systems includes Intranet and Database Publishing. Intranet uses the Internet technology and standards on internet corporate Networks.A central resource of infroamtion can be stored and maintained and updated on a single server. Everyone within the organisation can then be given access to some or all of this information.

Database Publishing is using information within the company in the most efficent way for all the company’s publishing requirements. Same information can be used to produce different outputs to suite different reqiurements. II. Business-to-Consumer (B2B) B2C describes activities of businesses serving end consumers with products and/or services. Eg-A person buying a pair of shoes from a retailer. Simply we can say in this case the sellers are oragnisations and the individuals will be the buyers.B2C e-commerce applies to any business or organization that sells its products or services to consumers over the Internet for its own use.

The most famous example that can be given to this type of e-commerce is the Amazon website which was launched in 1995. B2C includes services such as online banking, travel services, online auctions, health information and real estate sites. In October 2010, an extension of B2C, B21 was coined. Whilst B2C includes all manners of a business marketing or selling to consumers, B21 is specifically targeted towards an individual. B21 requires specific Personalization for that individual.

B21 requires Insight in order to create the personalized experience.Some of the unique attributes of this type of e-commerce are Negotiation, Intergration. The reason for saying B2C is negotiable is, when there is a selling to another business involves hangling over prices, deleivery and product specifications. But this is not essential for most comsumer sales. That makes it easier for retailers to put a catalog online, and it’s why the first B2B applications were for buying finished goods or commodities that are simple to describe and price.

Retailers don’t have to integrate with their customers’ systems. Companies selling to other businesses, however, need to make sure they can communicate without human intervention. But businesses should not be mean to the consumer.Business-to-Consumer is conducting business electronically using the Internet and more specifically,the World Wide Web. Some of the systems that include in B2C e-commerce are Database Applications,Kiosks and Portal. Database Application-Companies that need to make information widely avaliable form one central computer use database applications either via a wide area network or by allowing customers to dial directly into the compter.

If an order is placed,the central databse is automatically updated. Kiosks-A small physical structure including a computer and a display screen is usd to provide information for people walking by E. g-In public Libraries,Super Markets etc.Kiosks first came to prominence with the photo kiosk machines from “Kodak” and adoption by consumers coupled with advanced technologies such as touch-screens. The method of input is either a keyboard, touch-screen, or both. Some kiosks include card readers, ticket and receipt printers, bill and coin depositors, robotic product arrays and other more complex mechanical devices. Kiosks are intended for both consumers and business industries, benefits include ease of access, reduced transaction time, access to information and the ability to perform multiple transactions.

Kiosks can be used in financial service which includes bill payment,check cashing and credit application.As well as it can be used in retail information such as in-store product lookup and information,customer check-in such as airlines and hotels,Internet access,Visitor management and security,Human Resourses for benefits information and retail check out POS systems in grocery stores and hardware stores. Internet Store Fronts enable to access details of goods from electronic catalogues and order them online. Some products such as software,graphics,fonts and music can aslo be delivered electronically via the web. Eg:Black Star is an Internet store front for video stores. Portal-This describes a website that acts as a gateway and starting point to access the World Wide Web.Leading portals are Yahoo,MSN,iGoogle,AOL and Netvibes.

Typical services offered nclude a directory of websites,a facility to search for other sites,news,weather information,stock quotes,online shopping and map information for travelers. There are three types of portals. Those are Vortals,Vertical Information Portal and VIP Advetising Portal. In Vortals there are are two catogories,Horizontal and Vertical.

Two broad categorizations of portals are horizontal portals, which cover many areas, and vertical portals, which are focused on one functional area. A vertical portal consequently is a specialized entry point to a specific market or industry niche, subject area, or interest, also called vortal.When considering the Vertical Information Portal it is a specialized entry point to a specific marketplace and or Industry niche. VIP’s provide news, editorial content,digital publications, and Ecommerce capabilities. Separate from traditional Vertical Portals, VIP’s provide dynamic multi-media applications including social networking, video posting, and blogging.

And the VIP Advertising model utilizes conventional web advertising, but also implement landing page advertising, an SEO based program that creates specific editorial content based on the advertisers traffic needs. III. Consumer-to-Business (C2B) In this case consumers make known a particular need for a productor ervice,and organisations compete to provide the product or service. An example is Priceline. com,where the consumer names the price and suppliers try to fulfill it. This business model is a complete reversal of traditional business model where companies offer goods and services to consumers-business-to-consumer (B2C).

This kind of economic relationship is qualified as an inverted business type. The advent of the C2B scheme is due to major changes: • Connecting a large group of people to a bidirectional network has made this sort of commercial relationship possible. The large traditional media outlets are one direction relationship whereas the internet is bidirectional one. Decreased cost of technology : Individuals now have access to technologies that were once only available to large companies ( digital printing and acquisition technology, high performance computer, powerful software). IV. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2B) In this case as individual sells products or services to other individuals. A special case of this is peer-to-peer (P2P).

A common example is the online auction, in which a consumer posts an item for sale and other consumers bid to purchase it; the third party generally charges a flat fee or commission. There are many famous examples for this type of e-commerce. Some of them are eBay,Craigslist and Amazon. com. This type of e-commerce is expected to increase in the future because it cuts out the costs of using another company.

This C2C type a major role when considering the Universiteis.C2C are becoming more popular amongst students in universities because these are large communities in the same geographical region that are low on money. So they are looking for deals very often and these kinds of websites offer this. Universities themselves set up places for students to sell textbooks and other stuff to other students, you can even advertise that you are subletting your apartment. V. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2B) In this case an organisation uses e-commerce to improve its operations. A special cae of this known as B2E (Business-to-Employees).

VI. Government-to-Citizens (G2C) and others In this case the government provides services to its citizens via e-commerce technologies. Governments can do business with other governments as well as with other organizations.G2C often referred to as a market definition of “public sector marketing” which encompasses marketing products and services to various government levels – including federal, state and local – through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, marcom, advertising, and web-based communications. Government agencies typically have pre-negotiated standing contracts vetting the vendors/suppliers and their products and services for set prices.

These can be state, local or federal contracts and some may be grandfathered in by other entities. VII. Collaborative commerce (c-commerce) In this type of e-commerce,business partners collborate electronically. Such collaboration frequently occurs between and among business partners along the supply chain.

VIII.Mobile commerce (m-commerce) When e-commerce is done in a wireless enviornment,such as using cell phones to access the Internet,we call it m-commerce. According to the standard definiton given to this m-commerce which is mentioned as “the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as cellular telephone and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Known as next-generation e-commerce, m-commerce enables users to access the Internet without needing to find a place to plug in. ” As content delivery over wireless devices becomes faster, more secure, and scalable, there is wide speculation that m-commerce will surpass ireline e-commerce as the method of choice for digital commerce transactions. The industries that affect because of the m-commerce are Financial Service Sector, telecommunication industry, service/retail and Information Services. • Financial services, which includes mobile banking (when customers use their handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills) as well as brokerage services, in which stock quotes can be displayed and trading conducted from the same handheld device.

• Telecommunications, in which service changes, bill payment and account reviews can all be conducted from the same handheld device. • Service/retail, as consumers are given the ability to place and pay for orders osn-the-fly. Information services, which include the delivery of financial news, sports figures and traffic updates to a single mobile device. Task 02 Describe using diagrams/pictures two of the following applications. Explain what does and what processing takes place. v. A payroll system vi.

A Booking system vii. A Supermarket checkout system viii. An Electricity Billing System For Batch Processing Electricity billing system is an example for batch processing. That means related documents are collected together over a defined period of time (As for example it is monthly) and then processed.

In Billing System records of previous bills/payment bills should be available.It contains the number of the customer or the customer electricity bill account number. The number of units that a customer has been consumed and the customer number should be given to the system as inputs.

That record will be validated and stored by the system itself. Those stored data will be transferred to the transaction file which is allocated for each customer. The transaction file will be prepared. That transaction file will be sorted into master file sequence. The electricity bill number has been included to the system.

So according to that number the transaction files can be sorted. The sorted transaction file will next go to the billing process.Customer master file contains customer number, customer’s name, amount, due amount and number of units that have been consumed. Those data will go to the system and process billing and update master file. So the Customer master file will be updated by the system.

Then the electricity bill will be printed. And the hard copy of the electricity bill will be given to the customer. Processes in the “Electricity Billing System” • Validating and storing the details that are given to the system by the user referring to the “Payment slips”. • Sorting the transaction file into the master file sequence.

• Process billing and update the master file by transferring the data that have been collected form the updated transaction files. Printing the new bill with the total amount that should customer should paid. This total amount is calculated by adding the current amount with the due amount. For Interactive Processing Super Market checkout system is an example for interactive processing.

The essential feature if this system is that data is input immediately into a computer from its point of origin, normally through remote terminals, and transmits information to its points of use. Interactive processing is also known as “Online Processing system”. The product code is given as an input to the system. This can be done by a “Bar-code reader” or using a keybord. Then the system read the corresponding product details from the disk.This is done by using the records that are stored in the product file.

By reading the product file the system will find the details of the corresponding product. The details like description, price, producer of the product and etc. These details will be displayed in a monitor. Then the sales quantity will be inputed.

Then the system will update the stock balance. This updating will be done by deducting the current stock balance from the sales quantity. Then the system will compute the amount by multiplying quantity with the price and add amount to the total amount. After this process the details will be transferred to the product file and update the product file.A receipt that shows the amount and the total amount of the particular product will be printed.

As well as details of the product like product code, description, sales quantity, price and amount for each product followed by total amount will be printed. Processes in the “Super Market Checkout System” • Reading the corresponding product records directly from the disk, product file. • Updating stock balance • Computing the amount of sales (Price * Quantity) and the total amount. Task01 Develop a computerized system IDM Computer Studies (Pvt) Ltd wants to change its entire manual system to a computerized system to face the changes in Information and Communication technology in the new millennium.For the above change, you should gather information in the following to carryout the changes in the organization. Describe the followings according to the given situation i. Describe ten different packages which are suitable for the given situation with the reason.

ii. Explain the student registration system with a suitable Information processing method. iii. Describe the most suitable Application software for the situation. i. ) 1.

Operating System-This is essential for computes to run them. Without an operating system a computer cannot be used. IDM Computer Studies (Pvt) Ltd must buy more new computers in order to computerize its operations.Operating System is a type of System software. It is a set of programs which reduces the work load of the computer operator by automating some of the basic operations of the computer. Operating system can be classified as follows. One possible classification is based on the number of users and tasks. -Single user and Single Tasking (MS-DOS) -Single user and Multi Tasking (Microsoft Windows) -Multi user and Multi Tasking (UNIX) -Network Operating System -Virtual Memory An operating system (OS) is a software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers and manages the computer hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware, but will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. 2. Translators-When software is designed by using Java language as an example if the IDM Institute wants to develop a program to do the registration for new courses, to test that program or to check whether it is working properly, it has to be run. For this translators are needed. For this example which is mentioned above, “Compiler” can be used as a translator. A translator is a program that converts instructions written in a programming language (Source Program) too machine language instructions (object program).

For instance Assembler,Interpreter,Compiler,Intermediate code generators and cross compilers can be taken as examples for translators. In above examples Assembler is a Low level language translator while others are high level translators. 3. Productivity Software-To increase the efficiency of the programs that is going to use in the institute.

The unique objective of the productivity software is to increase the efficiency of the computer system. It is a recent addition to the software supplied by the manufacturers with the hardware. These are addition to operating system software, housekeeping and utility software. There is a range of productivity software provided by various manufacturers. For example SPOOLER software for multi-user computers.

Usually the most common productivity tools are in order of importance: word processing programs, that are used to create digital or printed text documents, immediately followed by spreadsheet applications that are used to create charts of complex iterative calculations, and databases that are used to manage large amount of any kind of data. Productivity software helps the professional or common user to enhance and complete their job. There is no computer or operating system that lacks of some sort of productivity software of any kind. 4. Utility or house keeping software-For file maintenance and creating documents These programs are used for routine, repetitive tasks, which can be shared by many users. These are also called service programs. Comman types are sort/Merge, File maintenance, File Copy/Dump and File recognition.Utility software should be contrasted with application software, which allows users to do things like creating text documents, playing games, listening to music or surfing the web.

Rather than providing these kinds of user-oriented or output-oriented functionality, utility software usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure (including the computer hardware, operating system, application software and data storage) operates. Due to this focus, utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an advanced level of computer knowledge. 5. Database Management System (DBMS)-To maintain student, lecturers and employees data A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of a database.A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMSs are categorized according to their data structures or types. The DBMS accepts requests for data from an application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data.

DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. 6. Spread Sheet PackagesThis is needed to the institute to keep records of the employees, students as well as the records of the financial position, for instance when they are preparing financial statements they need MS EXCEL to enter and calculate the data. Using spread sheets the comparability of data is high which means the data of given periods can be easily observed as well as easy to compare.

They are helpful in displaying economic trends, sales performance etc. In graphical form for easy analysis. 7. Word Processing Packages The lectures needed to prepare documents which have to give to the students. As an example we can take assignments. So they need word processing packages to do it. Not only have that to prepare the exam papers and other important documents liked letters to the manager, chairman or the parents.

Some examples for word processing packages are Word Perfect, MS WORD, and Word for Windows. 8. Graphics Packages Teachers or lecturers can be used these packages to do presentations or to conduct lectures as well as for the business analysts to show the company performance during past years. People learn better when information is presented visually. Graphichs packages can display numeric data in visual format. There are two types of graphic packages. Those are Analytical Graphics and Presentation Graphichs. Most analytical graphics come as part o spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel.

In presentation graphics, these are used to communicate a message or to persuade other people such as students in a class.These are mostly used by the marketing or sales people or lecturers to enhance the value of the lecturer by making presentations easily understood. 9. Application software-To design a Student Registration System; enrolling to new courses, online payment system and informing the due amount to pay etc. Application software, also known as an application, or an app, is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks.

Therfore we can say that application software is user oriented. There are three options for Application software. Those are In-House development, Outsourcing and Use of an Application package. 10.Open Source Software-To create a software for the institute as for their requirements which is more understandable, modifiable and reliable . This will be a cost saving method for the organization. Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available in source code form for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that permits users to study, change, and improve the software. ii.

) The Student Registration System For a Student Registration System the most suitable information processing method is the “Online Processing System” also known as the Interactive Processing.The essential feature of this system is that data is input immediately into a computer from its point of origin, normally through remote terminals and transmits information to its points of use. There are three types of Online Processing System. Those are Remote Job Entry (RJE System), On-line retrieval System (Enquiry System) and Real-Time Processing. In a Student Registration System the most important part is the storing place of the students’ records or details simply known as the “Student Database”. The most important features that student database should have are information should be stored and manipulated in manner which protects it from machine crashes and availability of access to the student data form anywhere in the campus.The database represents each Student record as a separate persistent object (approximately 1024 bytes), the Student Record, which is responsible for its own concurrency control, state management, and replication. Each Student Record has methods for storing and retrieving the student’s information: • Retrieve Record : obtain the student data record from the database, acquiring a read lock in the process.

• RetrieveExclusiveRecord: obtain the student data record, acquiring a write (exclusive) lock. • Store Record : store the student data in the database; if a record already exists then this operation fails. • Replace Record : create/overwrite the student data in the database.These methods are accessed through a server process; one server for each object. When considering the student record transactions the computers in the front office plays the major role in this process. They provide a form to the person who came to the registration. This is done to get information.

Then that person has to complete the form and give it to the receptionist. That form may contain the name, sex, Date of Birth, address and educational qualifications. These data will be entered to the system manually by the user. A separate place in the Student Database will be allocated for each student or a file will be opened on behalf of the student.That file contains the personal information about the student. By the system a registration number will be given to each student. And the initial payment made and its date as well as the due amount to be paid will be stored in that file. Or if the payment made in online there will be some additional information like the account number, account holder’s name and etc.

That particular student file can be updated, renewed or edited as for the company requirement. So finally the student will get a registration card and a receipt for their payment. They will be noticed about the starting date by the organization. Overall there can be 3 major operations in a student registration system. Those are, I.Either opening (asking to retrieve) the record, or creating a new record. II.

Displaying the record on the screen of the front-end system. III. Either closing it unmodified or storing the record in the database. These followings are the actual activities that can be seen in a Student Registration System. 1. Open: retrieves an existing record from the database. This operation is used when the record may be modified by the front-end system, and therefore a write-lock is obtained on the database object. 2.

New: for students not already registered in the database this operation allows a new record to be created and modified before being stored. 3.Close: terminates the atomic action without modifying the record in the database. 4. Store: stores the record in the database, and terminates the atomic action.

5. Read: retrieves an existing record from the database, in read-only mode. iii. ) The most suitable application software for the given situation is the “In-House Development”. This is the earliest method of developing applications software. Still many organizations continue with this method. This involves use of systems development staff within the organization. This is a very useful method of getting an effective system because the requirements that the organization requires already known exactly.

So developers can develop a system exactly which deliver the expected result to the user. This is a cost effective too. As well as this will generate more employment opportunities to the organization. An in-house project is something developed by the company that is going to use it. For example, I work for Company XYZ and we need an accounting package.

We could either buy a package like MYOB, or we could develop our own in-house package – which means we would program and design it ourselves. The role of a project manager is to oversee a project from beginning to end. The project manager will typically delegate tasks to people and ensure those tasks are completed on time and within budget. Reference • www.

wikipedia. com