AP Euro Chapter Essay

He helped restore public order in France by stimulating the economy Paulette Annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their office Fronded Religious Civil Wars in France Cardinal Richfield Used his influence over King Louis XIII to exalt the French monarchy the embodiment Of the French State. He was one Of the greatest servants Of the SST ate, set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism and his work served as the basis for France’ s cultural hegemony of Europe Generalities also known as districts.France is divided into 32 The French Academy French Literature developed in the time Louis XIV Longest serving king called the Sun king he did a lot to help establish h order in France Versailles Gaudy palace where the nobles stayed to stay to keep in touch with he politics of the day Moldier Masterful French Playwright Racine Masterful dramatist and playwright Poisson Leading French Baroque painters Countered of Olivares The person in the famous picture Dutch State General Bicameral congress of the Netherlands Dutch East India Co.The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States General of the Netherlands granted it a arrear monopoly LOL to carry out trade activities in Asia Peace of Utrecht Represented the balance of power principle in operation, set ting limits on the extent to which any on power could expand. Cabal of Charles II group of high councilors of King Charles II of England Instrument of Government A constitution of the Commonwealth of England, S Scotland and Ireland.

Drafted by Managerial John Lambert in 1653, it was the first severe sign codified and written constitution in the Meaninglessness world Puritans The name for the Calvinist in England Oliver Cromwell A general who was very Puritan and was nearly genocidal gag insist the Scottish and the Irish James II of England James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James I and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glory us Revolution Of 1688. He was killed English Bill of Rights First document that gave individual rights to people of a country.Developed after the glorious revolution John Churchill John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Prince of Middlemen, Prince of Millennium, KEG, PC, was an English soldier and statesman whose career span Ned the reigns of five monarchs John Locke Philosopher who believed in Life Liberty and Property Thomas Hobbes Wrote the book Leviathan. Believed all humans are driven by greed. Edict of Antes Revocation Not as much religious tolerance which created con flick between the Catholics and CalvinistScottish Revolt of 1640 Scottish revolts against the English King Charles I whew n he tried to change and reform the Scottish Church. War Of the Spanish Succession The war between the main European powers n the second half of the 17th century over Spain.

Glorious Revolution The Revolution in which The Dutch William and the English h Mary overthrew James II a hated Scottish king English Civil War 164249 ‘”Was a series of armed conflicts and political machine actions between Parliamentarians (“Roundhead”) and Royalists (“Cavaliers”) in the Kingdom of England principally, the manner of its government”QUESTIONS 1 In what way does the French minister Richfield symbolize absolutism? Ha t were his achievements? Richly had a policy of total subordination of all groups and institutions to the e French monarchy. The nobility was long considered the biggest threat to the centralizing goals o f the crown and a strong national state, so Richfield sought to restrain their power. In 1 624, he r shuffled the royal council and eliminated any threats to power. He dominated the council, leveling castles, long the symbol of feudal indeed dance, and crushed aristocratic conspiracies quickly.C] His greatest accomplishment is the administrative system he established, which consisted of royal commissioners, called intend ants, that ran the 32 greality or districts, France was made up of.

They ran special tasks, like finance al, judicial, and policing. As intends’ power increased under Richfield, so did the power of the cent realized French state. 2. Why can it be said that the palace of Versailles was used as a device to ruin the nobility of France? Was Versailles a palace or prison? At Versailles, Louis XIV established his royal court.Louis insisted that all of Far NC?s nobility, t the peril of social, political, and sometimes economic disaster, come live at Versailles for part Of the year at least. Louis XIV lessened the major threat to his power and he s operated power from status and splendor, ensuring the nobles’ cooperation. He required the nobles to live at the palace; it was essentially a prison because Louis XIV required them to live there e for part of the year.

As Sanitation once said, “Louis XIV reduced everyone to subjection… It was still a device to ruin the nobles by accustoming them to equality and forcing them t o mingle with everyone indiscriminately. 3. Define mercantilism.

What were the mercantilism policies Of the French minis term Collect? Mercantilism is a collection of governmental policies for the regulation of CEO anomic activities, esp.. Commercial activities, by and for the state. In 17th and technetium con mimic theory, a nation’s international power was thought to be based on its wealth. Because, mercantilism theory held, resources were limited, state intervention was needed to secure the large est. part of a limited resource.

4. Was the revocation of the Edict of Antes an error on the part of Louis XSL V?Highly debatable that he revoked edict of Antes e had many reasons for doing so. The French monarchy did not intend for religious toleration to be permanent, as religious pluralism was not regarded as a 1 7th century virtue.

The revocation of the Edict of Antes was also very popular, as aristocrats ha d wanted Louis XIV to crack down on the Protestants for a long time. Tens of thousands of Houghton craftsmen, soldiers, and businessmen were e migrated, taking away their skills, revenues, and bitterness to Holland, England, Prussia, and C ape Town.However, modern scholars found that the revocation only caused a minor beef etc in the French economical development.

5. What were the reasons for the fall of the Spanish Empire? By the seventeenth century, Spain was declining from their absolutism. The la KC of a strong middle class, fiscal disorder, political incompetence, population decline, Intel actual isolation, and psychological malaise contributed to such. The state debt and declining r venues caused currency devaluation and declaration of ban crypto. Spanish kings reacted by canceling the national debt, thus ruining public confidence.They all lacked force of character r and left the problems to others. Philip Ivy’s administrator returned to the imperial tradition , reviving the war tit the Dutch and creating one with France over Mantra. Spain became ember roiled in the Thirty Years’ War, while facing revolts in Catalonia and Portugal and defeat from Far once.

The Treaty of Pyroxenes of 1659, ended the Franchisees wars, marked the end of Spain’s great power. 6. Discuss the foreign policy goals of Louis XIV. Was he successful? Louis XIV of France was an aggressive expansionist. He followed in the footstep as of Cardinal Richfield in that aspect.His foreign policies were mainly against the Hapsburg g dynasty’s power and the ownership of Fricasseeing territories by nations other than France Hence, his reign policies included many wars. He took over the Spanish Netherlands a ND some of the United provinces of Holland, and Francophone. However, his aggressive DVD encase caused alliances to be formed against him which included the Hapsburg domains of S pain and the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Holland in all of their incarnations.

Eventually, L oasis XIV could not defeat the alliances, and some acquired territories were lost again in treat sees, even French colonies. . Define absolutism. How does it differ from totalitarianism? Absolutism: the political state where one leader posses all the power in a stats .

The absolute leaders believed that they had the divine right and were responsible to God. B classical, the absolute rulers believe that they were the state. Totalitarianism is when there is a centralized government on which a single p arty rules over the state’s political, economical, social, and cultural life without opposition.

This means that there is only one political party which rules Over a state. Ins was the absolute leader and ruled over the state by himself. With totalitarianism, a political party ruled over the state. 8.

What was the impact of Louis CSV’s wars on the French economy and French society? Spain was lessening absolutism by the seventeenth century. A series of factor s including the lack of a strong middle class, fiscal disorder, political incompetence, population De cline, intellectual isolation, and psychological malaise contributed to the decline. The state debt and declining revenues generated currency devaluation and declaration Of bankruptcy.

The Spanish kings responded by terminating the national debt, therefore destroying public iconic dance. All of the kings were lacking in force of character and consequently left the problems to others. Philip Ivy’s administrator went back to the imperial tradition, renewing the war with the Dutch and starting one with France over Mantra. Spain became involved in the Thirty Years’ War, while simultaneously facing revolts in Catalonia and Portugal and defeat from Fran CE. The Treaty of Pyroxenes in 1659, ended the Franchisees wars. It therefore marked the en d Of Spain’s immense power.

. What were the causes of the War of the Spanish Succession? What impact d id William Ill of England have on European events after about 1 689? The War of the Spanish Succession (1 7011 713) was provoked by the territorial I disputes of the previous century, and it also involved the question of succession to the Spanish h throne. It was supposed to be the grandson of Louis XIV, Philip of Enjoy, but the Dutch and English wouldn’t accept the French acquisition of the Spanish holdings. If Spain and France were e united, the European balance of power would be upset.William Ill (William of Orange) IM paced European events by joining the League of Sagebrush, becoming the leader of his coalition n.

He also got England and the Netherlands involved in the wars of the sass & 1 6905, in who ICC Louis XIV ride to take over Germany, and prevented France from winning any decisive victories. 10. What is constitutionalism? How does it differ from a democratic form of g overspent? From absolutism? Constitutionalism is when the ruling power has limitations due to set laws cry eating a balance between power of the government and the rights of the citizens.A constitution is an important part of constitutionalism and gets its power FRR mom the government’s recognition and serves as the people’s protector of their rights, liberties, and property. A constitutional government can either be in the form of a monarch or rep bill but the electorate has the ultimate power. It differs from a democracy because a true democracy grants all citizens the right to vote, where constitutionalism gave some men and no women a vote. Differs from absolutism because an absolutist state has one ruler who claim s he has the divine right and controls everything within his state.

1 . What were the attitudes and policies of James I that made him so unpopular AR with his subjects? James was not interested in exhibiting the majesty of monarchy. He lacked t he common touch and was unable to act as a “common man”. He did not like to wave at the crop wads who waited to ret him and he was a poor judge of character. In addition, in a society that was already hostile to Scots, his Scottish accent didn’t help him. He was devoted to the theory of t he divine right of kings and even lectured the House of Commons. James believed that there w as nothing that could go against a king.He implied complete royal jurisdiction over the liberty sees, persons, and properties of English men and women.

This formed the basis of the Stuart co incept of absolutism. 12. Who were the puritans? Why did they come into conflict with James l? An issue graver than royal extravagance and Parliament’s desire to make law also disturbed the English, embittering relations between the king and the House of Commons.

That problem was religion. In the early seventeenth century, increasing numbers Of English peep lee felt dissatisfied with the Church of England established by Henry VIII and reformed by Elizabeth the.The puritans were a group of people that wanted to purify the church, but after the Reform action, they believed that the changes hadn’t gone far enough to rid the Anglican Church of Roman Catholic elements. Sesame’s ideas began to conflict with the Puritan beliefs.

Like when Puritans WA need to abolish shops in the Church of England, and when James I said, “No bishop, no king, ” he meant that the bishops were among the chief supporters of the throne. He was no Purity n, but he was Calvinist in doctrine. Yet James gave the impression of being sympathetic to R Oman Catholicism. 3. What were the immediate and the language causes of the English Civil W AR of 16421649? What were the results? The English Civil War could have been predicted from the start of the rule of James l. Both James and Charles I believed in their divine right and refused to share any p rower or decision making with the Parliament or the House of Commons. Elision became a conflict between the monarchy and the people.

The people wanted further reform in the Church of England but the kings re fused. Immediate causes of the war included the Scottish invasion and the Irish re billion.