Outgoing Optimistic Powerful Choleric Powerful Choleric Outspoken Analyze Analyze Analyze Analyze Lead Lead Lead Lead Popular Sanguine Unemotional Strong Willed Unemotional Strong Willed Artistic Emotional Artistic Emotional Task Oriented Task Oriented Relationship Oriented Relationship Oriented Easy Going, Witty Easy Going, Witty Decisive, Organized Decisive, Organized Not Goal Oriented Not Goal Oriented Goal Oriented Goal Oriented Artistic Emotional Artistic Emotional Unemotional Strong Willed Unemotional Strong Willed Perfect Melancholy Perfect Melancholy Introverted Pessimistic Soft-Spoken IntrovertedPessimistic Soft-Spoken Peaceful Phlegmatic Peaceful Phlegmatic Carl Jung ~ Personal Unconscious ~Collective Unconscious ~Archetypes -persona (public self) -anima -animus -shadow (private self) Dominant & Submerged Dominant & Submerged “joiners” – extrovert “loners” – introvert 1.
Thinking 2. Feeling 3. Sensitive 4. Intuitive 5.
Thinking 6. Feeling 7. Sensitive 8. Intuitive * Rational * Irrational Adler: Father of Humanism/Father of Child Guidance Movement/Father of cog. Psyc ~Compensation: an effort to overcome physical weakness ~Inferiority Complex -Fixation -Birth Order – st ~Center of attention and probably spoiled ~Novelty ~King/Queen ~Authoritarian 2nd ~Novelty if new gender ~May make 1st Child feel de-throned (Freudian) -May cause 1st child to act out in order to recapture attention (regress) ~never experience the power the 1st born does ~parents: more relaxed, less anxious as well as less concerned about behavior ~may feel like a shadow to the 1st child ~insecurities due to overshadow from older sibling ~2nd born often matures faster ~more optimistic ~less concern for power Younger child ~never lose novelty ~Spoiled & pampered ~older children may be like another set of parents ~high achievers motivations to surpass the older child cause rapid development Only Child ~never de-throned ~difficulty with socializing Belief Belief Action Action ~Ficiotnal Finalism ~Style of Life: our meanings & beliefs 4 or 5 years 4 or 5 years -We are the masters of our own fate environmental influence ~Child Guidance Movement* “Never do for a child what a child can do for himself.If you do, you’ll end up with a pampered, spoiled child. ” –Adler “Take your sails out of your child’s wind.
” – Adler “Never say you’re going to do something if you’re not going to follow through” – Adler -Four questions of life (MUST BE ANSWERED) Who am I? ~What are other people like? ~What is the world like? ~What does the future hold? ~Extremes: -1) I am everything vs. I am nothing -2) Others are my subjects/servants vs. others are in control -3) it is my kingdom vs. it is a threatening place -4) More of the same *We act based on our answers to the Four Questions -Okay Comparison ~I’m okay, you’re okay (healthy) ~I’m okay, you’re NOT okay (superiority over others) ~I’m NOT okay, you’re okay (insecure) ~I’m NOT okay, you’re NOT okay (Pathological) Symptoms & Results: 1) Attention seeking -annoys parent Parent addresses it negatively (but still gets attention) creates faulty thinking (bad behavior = attention) -tantrum Parent allows them to throw a fit ~allows child to seek attention negatively ~solution: isolate yourself away from the tantrum child -revenge: faulty idea that you must establish position in family via physical Ex: ~Stealing ~Breaking things ~Starting fires ~Hurting family pets ~Parents feel despair -displays of in adequacy ~both child and parent give up ~requires a lot of therapy ————————————————- ~sooner intervention, the more likely for better results ————————————————- ———————————————— Adler Techniques ————————————————- ~”Spitting in the Soup”: a therapist plays down or degrades a patients symptoms ————————————————- ~Judo Effect: Challenges patients motivates (ex. I bet you can’t….
) ————————————————- ~More of the Same: Forces patients to do absolutely nothing patients resist and do things Relationships: ————————————————- *The best relationship is a first born girl and a second born boy* *stronger than the labito *stronger than the labitoKaren Horney Culture influences personality Individuals reaction to a real or imagined threat Influences: 1. Environment 2. Social factors Motivation: 1. Anxiety* Ideas/concepts 1. Neurotic trends: Strategies or defenses that we develop to provide security and satisfaction A) Submission (toward) ~compliant type personality -over-riding need to give in/submit to others in order to feel safe -neurotic (friendship is superficial) B) Aggression (against) ~Hostile/domineering matter -neurotic (masks insecurity/anxiety) C) Detachment (away from) ~No relationship -“if I withdraw, no one can hurt me” -may be seen as aggressiveHorney: 1. very positive * Adults can still change for the better -Biology is NOT destiny 2. Better understanding/constructive view on male/female personalities 3.
Culture defines personality * Therefore, personality can change as culture isn’t set in stone Bridge Theorists: Adler, Horney & From -Humanism -Psychoanalysis Bridge Theorists: Adler, Horney & From -Humanism -Psychoanalysis Eric Fromm ~Influenced by Sigmund Freud & Carl Marx -gave theories Socialistic aspect -we feel lonely and isolated because we have become separated from nature & other human beings we try to escape to avoid making choices, as a result, we end up abdicating others, which alienates us from our own powers and responsiveness Mechanisms for escape: 1) Authoritarian Mechanisms of “escape” Mechanisms of “escape” ~abusive relationship 2) Destructiveness ~I must destroy world Before it destroys me 3) Automation conformity ~Loss of one’s self ~adaptation of Personality Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis Trait: a relatively enduring quality Trait: a relatively enduring quality Trait theorist Trait theorist Gordon Alport ~Believes traits are relatively permanent ~Some Beliefs are relatively imposed Body Self: (birth to 8 months) Difference between intereal/external -physical limitations -feelings help confirm our existence -forms the very core of our self and remains important throughout life Self-Identity: (Birth to 8 months) -a sameness in how one perceives oneself -the role of memory and how it contributes to the sameness Self Esteem: (18 months to 4 years) -emergence of pride -experience of pride when a task is accomplished -emergence of humiliation -testing of the limitations (Our environment or authority) -Development of oppositional tendencies -After age 4, it becomes latent and emerges in adolescence Self-Extension: (4 years to 6 years) Extended loyalties -A shift from a selfish perspective with a concern from benefitting others -Conscious starts to develop Others Others Starts with ego Self-Image: (4 years to 6 years) -learns the expectations of the roles that we are required to perform -development of aspirations for the future -the self-image evolves as the conscious develops -We do what others expect of us for approval to avoid disapproval Self as Rational Coper: (6 years to 12 years) -ability to distortment and development of the defenses -engagement in reflective thought -the beginning of rational thought processes and awareness of themPropriate Striving: (12 years +) 1. Peripheral: Impulses & drives a. About reducing tension & immediate gratification (Freud’s ID) 2. Propriate: higher level motivation b. Individual deliberately increases & maintains tension as we pursue higher goals c. Ex: HS Diploma, Honors Classes (Freud’s Ego) d. Mature conscious John Holland Personality types: Realistic: -like to work with animals -use innovative tools/machines -values practical and tangible things -“hands on” people -good with technical diagrams and mechanical equipment – Ideal jobs: ~Chefs, pilots, police officers, contractors/carpenters Investigative: Social: -Good with people -Good social skills (like sanguine) -Enjoys solving social problems -good in dialogue -easy to relate RL experiences -ideal jobs -nursing -teaching -counseling -life coaches -public speakers Enterprising: -good at starting and implementing projects (and can carry them out) -Good leaders -confident -quick decider -persuasive -ideal jobs -attorneys -politicians -entrepreneurs -real estate agents/brokers -sales people Conventional: -enjoys structure -good with technology -cubicle people -Ideal jobs -tax preparers -data entry people Raymond Cattel 16 PFs -16 PF questionnaire -factor analysisCareer Counseling Hans Eysenck 3 Universal Traits 1.
Introversion/extroversion 2. Neuroticism/emotional stability 3. Psychoticism ————————————————- (Difficulty dealing with reality; anti-social; manipulative; non-empathic; hostile) Five Factor Theory of Personality 5 factors 5 factors ~Allport coined 4k+ traits ~Cattel reduced to 100 ~Eysenck reduced to 16 1. Extroversion 2. Agreeableness 3.
Conscientiousness 4. Neuroticism 5. Openness William Sheldon “Certain personality types come with body builds” Somatypes: 1. Endomorphic -Squishy, pudgy -Enjoys comfort, food & affection Good natured 2. Monomorphic -square, tough, muscular, athletic -Active/aggressive 3.
Ectomorphic -thin, frail, small boned/small featured ————————————————- -Sensitive, shy, withdrawn Word Association Projective Tests (indirect) Projective Tests (indirect) TAT; Thematic Apperception Test Drawing Completion Test Sentence Completion Test Criticisms: 1. Requires trained interpreter (usually Bachelor degree ppl administer them, but a psychologist/psychiatrist interprets) 2. Results are unreliable as mood and test conditions can affect answers Objective The Interview the Free Interview – person just talks while therapist listens ~the Directed Interview – Specific questions and answers Self-Inventory 1.
Forced Answer Forced Answer True-false 2. Agreement scales 3. Adjective checklist 4. Numbers Projective “I” ~WAT ~TAT NEO Free Drawing: ~used for kids who have experienced trauma ~Asked to draw picture of family ~look for location, and how the child placed the family ~Size of the members ~anatomical correctness -eyes -stick figures or…? -hands? (dirty) -phallic symbols (sexually abused) ~draw a house -door? Window? Happy or sad house? Benderheiven Gestalt ~8 standardized drawings for comparisonsHow are personality assessment instruments used to assist in the diagnosis of a clinical disorder? -to rule out disorders and look for different disorders -MMPI/MMPI 2 – addresses anti-social/psychotic disorders Defense Mechanisms – by Anna Freud ~aka Adjusting/coping mechanisms ~def: ways of behaving that help satisfy needs, reduce anxiety from frustration and protect and individuals self esteem Compensation: attempt to make up for a lack in one area by putting extra effort in another : coping my closely associating with the behavior of someone else Projection: protruding one’s own undesirable traits to othersBlaming others for what we don’t like about our self Sterotyped Behavior: how we respond to past behavior and make no attempt to adjust to new conditions ~mindset: if it works once, why not do it again ?? Repression: trying to forcing themselves to forget Regression: backwards progress *Procrastination: putting off a task in order to avoid an unpleasant conflict “the art of keeping up with yesterday” Displaced Aggression: transfer of anger from the source to an innocent person/object Abdicate: avoiding decision by giving up responsibilityRationalization: explaining a way of ones unacceptable behavior with socially acceptable reasons ~requires first fooling yourself ~Sour Grapes/Sweet Lemons Denial: simple straight forward refusing ot admit the truth Reaction formation: a behavioral variation of denial ~we do the opposite of how we feel Introjection: Adopting the attitude of others as our own ————————————————- Sublimation: the redirection of SUPPRESSED feelings Walter Michelle Marvin Zukkerman Mark Snyder