1. Tenochtithin- the Aztec capital built on the site of present-day Mexico City and had a population of over 100,000 in 1500 and an impressive complex of majestic public buildings including temples equal in size to the great pyramids of Egypt. 2. Iroquios Confederation- is a collection of five original nations bound together by mutual peace and friendship. The founding nations were the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca Nations, with the Tuscarora Nation joining later.
3. Black Death- a catastrophic epidemic of the bubonic plague that began in Constantinople in 1347 and decimated Europe by killing more than a third of the people of the continent and debilitating its already limited economy. 4. Prince Henry the Navigator- helped find a faster route to Africa, helped Portugal become the preeminent maritime power in the fifteenth century 5. Amerigo Vespucci- a member of Portuguese expeditions to the New World who wrote a series of vivid descriptions of the lands he visited
6. Francisco Pizarro- conquered Peru and revealed to the Europeans the wealth of the Incas and he also opened up advances into South America 7. Don Juan de Onate- traveled north and claimed Pueblo Indian Land and enforced encomiendas 8. Pueblo Indians- a group of Indians that allocated farming tasks to men. They also had land and power taken away from them by the Europeans. 9. Mestizos- people of a half European/native race 10. Mali- emerged after the collapse of Ghana and survived well into the fifteenth century with its greatest city named Timbuktu which was a trading center and a seat of education
11. John Cabot- Sailed the Northeast coast of America on an expedition sponsored by King Henry VII 12. Enclosures- is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land formerly held in the open field system 13. Merchant capitalists- is a term used by economic historians to refer to the earliest people in the phase in the development of capitalism as an economy and social system. In Europe, merchant capitalism first became a significant economic force in the 11th or the 16th century (depending on your point of view).
14. Mercantilism- rested on the assumption that the nation as a whole was the principal actor in the economy, not the individuals within it 15. Huguenots- members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries 16. Separatists- they were determined to worship as they pleased in their own independent congregations 17. Plantations- transplantations of English society in a foreign land 18. Coureurs de bois- fur traders and trappers who helped link the French with the Indians 19. Sea dogs- raided Spanish ships, including the most famous of all, Sir Francis Drake