Deism- the liberal religious philosophy of the late 1800s that believed in a Supreme Being who had created a knowable universe and endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior. Unitarians- the spin-off of Puritanism of the early 1800s that held that God only existed in one person, not the Trinity. Second Great Awakening- the movement that arose in the early 1800s in reaction to the growing liberalism in religion. Charles Grandison Finney- the greatest of the revival preachers of the 1830s who eventually became the president of Oberlin College.
Burned-over district- the religious scene in Upstate New York, particularly the western and central regions of the state, in the early 19th century, which was repeatedly “burned over” by religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening Joseph Smith- the founder of the Mormon Church. Mormon Church- members of the Church of Latter Day Saints created by Joseph Smith and led later by Brigham Young Brigham Young- the person who led the Mormons from Illinois to their home in the West. Utah Statehood- Horace Mann- the brilliant and idealistic Brown University graduate who led the campaign to reform education in the mid-1800s.
Noah Webster- the Yale-educated Connecticut Yankee known as the “Schoolmaster of the Republic” whose 19th century reading lessons were used by millions and whose 1828 work helped standardize the American language. McGuffey’s Readers- Emma Willard- the woman responsible for attaining respect for women’s schools; also established the Troy Female Seminary in New York Mary Lyon- the intrepid pioneer in the field of higher education for women who founded Mount Holyoke College in 1837. Lyceum lecture associations-
Dorothea Dix- the 19th century New England teacher and authoress who traveled for eight years and 60,000 miles to assemble her report on the treatment of the insane. William Ladd- the leading spirit in the formation of the American Peace Society in 1828. American Temperance Society- the organization formed in Boston in 1862 that implored drinkers to sign temperance pledges. Lucretia Mott- the sprightly Quaker leader of the women’s rights movement whose ire had been aroused when she and her fellow female delegates to the London Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840 were not recognized.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton- the mother of seven of the 1840s who insisted on leaving “obey” out of her marriage ceremony. She shocked fellow feminists by going so far as to advocate suffrage for women. Susan B. Anthony- the Quaker-reared woman’s rights movement leader who, in 1872, was arrested, found guilty, and fined for voting. Seneca Falls Convention- Declaration of Sentiments- a list of grievance (based on the Declaration of Independence)written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton at the Senenca Falls Convention about women’s rights Communitarian Uptopias-
Robert Owen/New Harmony- wealthy and idealistic textile manufacturer Robert Owen established a utopian communal society here in 1825. Book Farm- the communal experiment in Massachusetts in 1841 which ended in fire and financial failure. John Noyes/Oneida Community- the radical communal experiment founded in New York in 1848 that had trouble with the law over its marriage practices. Shakers- one of the largest and longest-lived communal societies whose 1840 membership of 6,000 dwindled to extinction because they opposed marriage and free love.
Louis Agassiz- the French-Swiss Harvard professor who, as a student of biology, insisted on original research and was known to have carried snakes in his pockets. Asa Gray- the Harvard College professor, the Columbus of American botany, who published over 350 books, monographs, and papers. John J. Audubon- lovers of American bird lore owe much to this French-descended American who, in the first half of the 19th century, published the magnificently illustrated Birds of America.
Monticello/University of Virginia- one of the leading universities of the early 1800s was the brainchild of Thomas Jefferson who designed its beautiful architecture. Hudson River school- a mid 19th century American Art Movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influened by romance Stephen C. Foster- the white Pennsylvanian of the mid-1800s whose songs captured the plaintive spirit of the slaves.
Kinckerbocker Group- the group of 19th century writers from New York who finally gained international acclaim for their literary works. Washington Irving- A nineteenth-century American author. ” The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle” are two of his best-known works. James Fenimore Cooper- the famous early American novelist who gained critical acclaim in the early 1800’s with the publication of his Leather Stocking Tales. William Cullen Bryant- “Thanatopsis,” which was published in 1817, was the melancholy and meditative writing of this 16-year-old.
Transcendentalism- the philosophical movement of the early 1800s that emphasized individualism, self-reliance, self-culture, and self-discipline. Ralph Waldo Emerson- the best known of the transcendentalists of the early 1800s. Henry David Thoreau- the poet, mystic, transcendentalist, non-conformist who wrote Walden. Walt Whitman- known as the “Poet Laureate of Democracy,” he wrote of his love for the masses. This 19th century author caught the exuberant spirit of an expanding America in his most famous piece, Leaves of Grass.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow- one of America’s most famous poets was this 19th century Harvard professor who wrote “Evangeline,” “Hiawatha,” and “The Courtship of Miles Standish. ” John Greanleaf Whittier- an American poet of the mid-19th century, the Fighting Quaker, the uncrowned poet laureate of the anti-slavery crusade, and the poet of human freedom. Lauisa May Alcott- a woman writer who wrote “Little Women” and other books based on her mother and sisters. She got many ideas from her philosophical father Branson Alcott Emily Dickinson- “The Belle of Amherst”.
THE single greatest American poetess of the 19th century, wrote hundreds of poems including “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” and “Wild Nights! Wild Nights! ” She was a deeply sensitive woman who questioned the puritanical background of her Calvinist family and soulfully explored her own spirituality, often in poignant, deeply personal poetry. Edgar Allen Poe- this Virginia-reared, eccentric genius of the early 1800s suffered tragedy, hunger, cold, poverty, and debt and authored “The Raven” and “The Fall of the House of Usher. Nathaniel Hawthorne- the Salem, Massachusetts reared writer of the early 1800s whose Calvinist-centered writings culminated in 1850 with the masterpiece The Scarlet Letter. Herman Melville- this orphaned and ill-educated New Yorker went to sea as a youth. He wrote charming tales of the South Seas, but his masterpiece was published in 1851. He was the author of the epic novel Moby Dick. George Bancroft- this “Father of American History” helped found the Naval Academy. From 1834-1876, he published a ten-volume history of the U. S.