Ap World History Chapter 7 India Notes Essay

Chapter 7 India Monday, October 15, 2012 12:21 PM Indian Subcontinent • 3 topographical zones: – Northern mountainous zone – Indus and Ganges basins – Peninsula Vindhya Mountains and Deccan plateau divide peninsula from other two zones 4 sub regions in Peninsula: – Tropical Kerala in west – Coromandel Coast in east – Flat area of Tamil Nadu in south – Island of Sri Lanka Weather, Crops, and Geography • Peninsular India and Ganges Valley have a subtropical climate and plentiful rainfall. • Indus Valley is dry and agriculture relies on irrigation. • Staple crop of the Ganges Delta is rice. Staple crops elsewhere are wheat, millet, and barley. • All of this geographic diversity made it difficult for any political power to Beginning the Vedic Age • Indo-European warriors migrated into India after fall of Indus Valley civilizations • Organized into patriarchal families or kingship groups and herded cattle in northwest. After 1000 BCE began to push into the Ganges Valley Used iron tools to cultivate land and knock down trees Vedic Oral Tradition • Light skinned Arya tribes tell of a violent struggle with the darker skinned Dravidian speaking Dasas. The Arya tribes state they drove the Dasas into Southern India. Varna System Developed because of struggle between Dasas and Aryas. • People were born into one of four Varna • Brahmin priests scholars • Kshatriya warriors merchants

• Shudra peasant laborer Rig Veda concerning the origin of the members of the Caste System Subdivision of the Varna • Four Varna were subdivided into hereditary occupational groups called jati (caste) • Jati were arranged in order of hierarchy • Complex ruler governed the appropriate occupation, duties, and rituals of each jati, including interaction between people of different jati Reincarnation • Systems of Varna and Jati were rationalized by the concept of reincarnation. Each individual has an immortal spirit that will be reborn in another body after death • One’s station in the next life depends on one’s actions (karma) in this and previous lives Vedic Religion • Emphasized the worship of male deities through sacrifice. • Religious knowledge and practice was the monopoly of the Brahmin priestly Varna. – Memorized rituals, prayers, and hymns – May have opposed writing of the info to maintain their monopoly religious information Vedic Women • Do not know much about status or roles of women in the Vedic period • Could study lore, participate in rituals, own land Married in middle or late teens Reacting to Rigidity • People reacted against rigid social hierarchy and religious monopoly • Did so by retreating to the forest to peruse yoga, special diets, or mediation • Gioal was to achieve moksha – liberation from cycle of birth, death, and rebirth • Ideas are reflected in the Jainism • Founded by Mahavira ( 540 – 468 BCE)

• Janis practiced nonviolence and went to extremes not to kill any living thing • The most extreme went naked and starved themselves to death • Less extreme devoted themselves to commerce and banking Death of Buddha After the death of the Buddha, some of his followers organized themselves into monasteries and nunneries • Also developed a complex, hierarchical religion complete with • Worship of the Buddha • Reverence for bodhisattvas • Artistic representations of the Buddha Two branches of Buddhism • Religion broke into two major schools • Mahayana • Theravada • Mahyana incorporated new Buddhist beliefs • Theravada followed original teaching of the Buddha more closely Rise of Hinduism • Reform of old Vedic religion because of new religions Jainism and Buddhism • Foundations of Vedic religion incorporated Intense personal religious devotion Fertility rituals Symbolism of the southern Dravidian cultures Vishnu, Shiva, and Devi • Two formerly minor Vedic deities now had places of honor in the Hindu religion: • Vishnu, the preserver • Shiva, the destroyer • Goddess Devi was also prominent in new religious traditions Hindu Worship • Centered on temples and shrines • Included puja service to a deity and pilgrimage Transformation from Vedic religion to Hinduism • Successful that Hinduism became dominate religion Appealed to common peoples needs MAURYAN EMPIRE • 324 – 184 BCE • Core of empire was the kingdom of Magadha • Plentiful agriculture and iron resources • Founded by Chandragupta • Expanded by him, Vindusara, and Ashoka until it included most of subcontinent Government • Capital at the allied and moated city of Pataliputra • Establishment including a large arms, was paid for by • 25 present tax on agriculture products Ashoka • Most famous Maryan emperor • Ruled from 269 – 232 BCE Converted to Budhism after seeing effect of warfare in South