Appraisal of Errors in Building Construction Due to Poor Workmanship Essay

Appraisal of Errors in Building Construction Due to Poor Workmanship


India, a state endowed with labour is sing an dry state of affairs. There is batch of unemployment due to miss of accomplishments even though development is making new employment chances. And most of the working labour is employed due to deficiency in supply of skilled workers. This paper aims to look into mistakes happening due to unskilled or low skilled workers in residential edifice buildings. Scope of the paper is limited till the building of construction in residential low rise edifices. A study is carried out to place some of the common, yet of import mistakes happening in most of the residential buildings. Subsequently a study with structured questionnaire is carried out to happen the factors responsible for these mistakes harmonizing to respondents. It is found that most of the mistakes occur because workers are randomly induced into this field without preparation. It can be concluded, if workers are trained, both holds and quality of undertaking can be optimized.

Keywords:Unskilled workers, Residential Constructions, Quality, Structure, Training

  1. ­Introduction

India is one of the universe ‘s fastest turning economic systems and this growing has brought with it a important encouragement in building activities ( Roshan,2013 ) .In India, building industry is 2nd largest economic activity after agribusiness using 33 million people accounting to 11 % of GDP in India ( Ramaswamy, 2010 ) . Rapid substructure development in metropoliss increase demand for workers in building industry. Along with the demand at that place has been huge advancement in development of new stuffs and techniques for building procedure ( Desai, 2001 ) .But, residential buildings in India usage labour-intensive manual techniques for building. Even though interior decorators are accommodating to latest tendencies in design, building techniques remained conventional in building market. Very few undertakings are using the latest engineering available for building. This consequences in disbursement more energy to build modern edifices in traditional manner. Using traditional skilled labour without proficient expertness sometimes shows inauspicious effects on edifice throughout its lifecycle. To let interior decorators to transform the design constructs and thoughts into good physical merchandise, there should be choice labour capable to work with latest engineering & A ; stuffs. Due to handiness of inexpensive labour, local contractors are using manual techniques.

The quality of this skilled labour greatly affects both design and efficiency of the edifice. Over the past few old ages, a diminution in the skilled work force has caused holds, break and increased costs to all parties in the building procedure. Many surveies like National accomplishment Development Corporation ( , 2003 ) that surveyed statistics of workers support that the building industry is confronting a crisis of skilled workers deficits and preparation of its work force is requires. For case, industry is enduring deficit of building workers for plumbing and machine operators, ensuing in addition in undertaking cost and deceleration of building activity ( Heikkila, 2012 ) .

  1. Problem Statement

The rapid growing of building industry is impacting quality of building. Major cause for low quality in edifices is an deduction due to hapless craft or low-quality of stuffs ( Abdulrazak et al, 2010 ) . Residences provide safe environment for us, universally it is accepted as indispensable for life nutriment and endurance ( Adenuga, 1999 ) . Using the above statement, this research was carried out to analyze the mistakes happening in building due to hapless craft. Sing thigh use of unskilled labour in residential buildings, study is carried. It helped to understand the frequence of building and to suggest suited solutions to the job.

  1. Purpose:

Aim of this paper is to look into the mistakes happening in building and grounds of it.

  1. Research Questions:
  1. What are the mistakes happening due to moo skilled workers?
  2. What is the frequence of mistakes due to hapless craft?
  3. Understand the degree of duty of professionals in mistakes happening
  4. What is possible solution to cut down mistakes?
  1. Research Methodology:

This research work considered mistakes happening in residential edifices within Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.

  1. Questionnaire Design

First, an extended literature survey was done in placing mistakes happening in building due to unskilled workers and factors related to those mistakes. Then, three residential building sites were selected for pilot survey, which were under structural building stage. Some of the mistakes were observed in these sites and documented for readying of questionnaire. Unstructured treatments were besides carried out with Architects and contractors to understand some more mistakes happening in building. Secondary research informations from Afolarin, 2012 and Shittu, 2013 was besides used to explicate inquiries. These listed mistakes are analyzed and so a structured questionnaire is prepared to research job through study. A study was conducted by following five-point Likert graduated table for analyzing frequence of happening of mistakes in building procedure. Respondents are requested to give value on a graduated table of 5, from least credence to highest credence.

Eg. How frequently do you detect these errors happening in residential buildings in Vijayawada?On the graduated table of 5:1. Never Happens/Not at all ( strongly disagree )2. Rarely happens( Disagree )3. Impersonal( happens, but on occasion )4. Often happens/Agree ( in most of the sites )5. Happens ever( happens in every undertaking )

  1. Cleaning of sand is non carried out [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
  2. Blending per centum ( cement: sand: crushed rock ) is compromised [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
  1. Sample Size

The respondents were three designers and three edifice contractors with minimal 10-years of experience in several Fieldss. Due to clip restraint, sample size is minimized to finish the paper. A complete questionnaire was handed over to them for response. Table 1 represents the distribution of respondents and their frequence.

Table1. Summary of the Respondents







  1. Analysis
    1. Frequency of defects in building related to workers

Table 2: represents the respondents view about the frequence of happening of building mistakes due to hapless craft. The tabular array shows that Leaks in shuttering, Inadequate Overlap of steel bars and improper shuttering degrees are most normally happening mistakes in building procedure. On the flipside, improper base for Scaffolding and non utilizing spacers for columns is most rare mistake happening.

Table 2: Response to frequence of mistakes in building


Mean Value

Shuttering degrees are checked manually


Inadequate convergence for support saloon


Leaks in shuttering


Blending per centum is compromised


Adding excess H2O to concrete


Watering columns manually


Spacers under support


Negligees of pan and etc. are thrown


Cleaning of sand is non carried out


Vibration is done manually


Concrete spills


Time spread between blending and use


Minimum screen for columns is compromised


Formwork is non strong plenty


Concrete is dropped from caput degree


Improper protection of slab from conditions


Columns are casted without mention raiser


Spacers are non used for columns


Scaffolding remainders on improper land


Beginning: Field survey, 2014

  1. Factors Causing Mistakes Related to Contractor

Table 3:

Table 3: Factors doing building mistakes related to Contractors





Improper supervising




Using Unskilled work force




Lack of experience to contractor




Changing accomplishments demands




Lack of cognition about better techniques




Complicated functions of contractor




Unfamiliar building equipment’s




Payment holds




Transporting multiple undertakings at a clip




Limited net income




Limited clip




Language barrier




Beginning: Field survey, 2014

  1. Factors Causing Mistakes Related to Proffesionals

Table 4: represents the respondants ranking on five point graduated table for the factors doing building mistakes which are related to proffesionals like designers and applied scientists.

Table 4: Factors doing building mistakes related to Professionals





Inadequate Inspection quality




Not confer withing professionals




Improper judgement of site conditions




Lack of understanding paperss




Failing to fix specification to all facets of work




Delay in supply of drawings




Failure to inspect stuffs storage on site




Improper equipment specification




Mismatchs in different drawings




Communication spread between site and office




Beginning: Field survey, 2014

  1. Discussions
    1. Defects in Construction Process due to Poor Workmanship

Frequency of the mistakes happening in building harmonizing to the respondants is reprasented in Figure 1 holla.

Figure 1:

Beginning: Field survey, 2014 Major Mistakes Happening Constructions due to hapless craft

  1. Shuttering Degrees Are Checked Manually

This is accepted as one of the most occurring mistakes in building by bulk of respondents. Scaffolding is finished two to three yearss before projecting. Following, reinforcement workers throw reinforcement rods on scaffolding from highs. This causes improper subsiding of scaffolding. Besides, reused wooden shutters are preferred in Vijayawada ; improper articulations cause batch of degree differences in shuttering. But, as thread degree is used to look into degrees from terminal to terminals, the degrees in between tend to be ignored. This besides increases sum of concrete required to accomplish proper inclining for H2O flow. By following latest building engineerings mistakes in shuttering can be reduced drastically.

  1. Inadequate Overlap For Reinforcement Bar

Overlap length is accepted to be largely ignored mistake. It is either exceeds the needed convergence or falls below the lower limit needed overlap length. Proper supervising on lower support articulations is losing. This is chiefly due to deficiency of instruction about scientific procedure of ciphering overlap length harmonizing to the diameter of rod. This may do a major defect in edifice and can even take to failure of construction.

  1. Leaks In Shuttering

In Vijayawada, wooden staging is cheaper than steel 1s. So bulk of the buildings are still choosing wooden staging. Because of hapless quality wood used in shutters, there exists batch of spreads between articulations. Improper articulations allow cement to leak down and cement content in concrete mixture is compromised. Even in steel stagings, when steel sheets are non joined decently same mistake is observed. But, relatively utilizing steel shutters have drastically reduced this mistake.

  1. Blending Percentage Is Compromised

As most of the undertakings still use portable little graduated table concrete sociables, people add cement, sand, class sum and H2O manually utilizing different sized vass. So the pollex regulation of weight ratio to volume of these vass is non checked. Alternatively ocular entreaty is used as standard to look into mix ratio. If the general notation of measure is missed in peculiar batch people order workers to increase ratio for following batch. Sometimes labourers tend to lose one volume of any ingredients as each one is added by multiple people continuously. This is a major issue to be rectified, as it may even do edifice failure.

  1. Adding excess H2O to concrete

Workers add excess H2O to concrete to increase slack to cut down attempts in arrangement. Possibility of adding one excess pail of H2O is besides at that place, because two to three people portion the work of adding H2O to each batch of concrete commixture. This is usually observed instantly by site supervisor, but ne’er any batch of concrete is rejected for this ground. Supervisor advices the labourers to cut down the H2O content, but does non direct back the arrived measures. It reduces the strength of concrete and besides produces grading of concrete.

  1. Watering columns manually

Hardening is one of the most serious jobs local to Vijayawada. But harmonizing to respondents, frequence of this mistake is changing greatly depending on the attention taken by proprietor. Sing the hot clime of Vijayawada in summers, freshly casted concrete has to be cured at greater rate. Unless concrete is cured at proper humidness and temperature, it will non achieve coveted strength. People pour H2O one time or twice a twenty-four hours utilizing hose pipe, but exterior temperature can zap the H2O content in proceedingss. So a proper uninterrupted hardening has to be done to achieve coveted strength. In utmost instances, improper hardening can even do structural snap.

  1. Spacer blocks under support

After arrangement of support, people walk on it during projecting. So, some blocks break before casting of concrete. This happens due to weak blocks or over burden on blocks. In most of instances it is due to hapless quality of blocks which are casted with improper concrete mixture. In some instances blocks are non cured decently due to detain in casting.

  1. Negligees of pan and etc. are thrown

Most of the workers have a wont of smoke or masticating pan. They trash the negligees during procedure of casting of concreting. When these negligees are non taken attention of, they cause “Bug holes” in concrete. Bug holes are little pockets of air or H2O, which cause leaks in slabs. If ignored, disciplinary steps have to be carried out to collar leaks in slab.

  1. Cleaning of sand is non carried out

This is besides one of the mistakes happening in Vijayawada. Sand for building is supplied from river bed after Prakasam Barrage. In rainy season, inundations in River Krishna hinder the supply of sand. So, anterior to rainy season, sand is stored in unfastened lands without proper protection. During storage, due to natural forces foliages and biomass content is attracted to sand. When this biomass content increases 2 % , it can do major leaks and moistness in building.

  1. Vibration is done manually

Most of the sites still use manual ways to consolidate concrete in columns. Peoples use stick and/or shaking of support itself to consolidate concrete. When workers move support bars, the uneven arrangement of support may cut down the effectual screen for steel bars. It besides changes the alliance of the support. This may take to corrosion of the support and bit by bit reduced strength in columns.

  1. Concrete spills

During concreting, concrete is carried from land degree to slab degree by concrete raising hoist. After it is poured on slab, workers manually carry it to all parts of slab. While transporting the concrete to all points, little concrete spills are observed. This concrete spills undergo puting before existent concreting is done in peculiar topographic point. This may do clefts due to uneven enlargements in this heterogenous mixture.

  1. Time spread between blending and use

This is opted as one of the least occurring mistake. In rare instances, workers mix concrete in big sums before tiffin interruption. This clip spread between blending and use of concrete reduces the strength because H2O allows cement to respond and get down hardening. Peoples are witting about the sick effects of hold in use.

  1. Minimum screen for columns is compromised

After study, it is observed to be similar with inquiry “j” .

  1. Formwork is non strong plenty

Most of the abodes use wooden formwork for slabs. This is because of the economic feasibleness to the client. The articulations are non designed and it is done by unskilled workers. So, during projecting formwork prostrations or sinks doing menace to workers. And besides if the base sinks small spot, that much excess concrete is required to be poured to accomplish desired incline.

  1. Concrete is dropped from caput degree

When concrete is dropped from tallness, heavy class aggregative tends to settle but loose cement mixture tends to skid out. This causes improper mix ratio in the concrete. But, after study it is found to be non so large job.

  1. Improper protection of slab from conditions

In rainy season freshly casted slab has to be protected from possible conditions effects. If the freshly casted slab is left unfastened to rains, it creates settling of subgrade due to excess H2O content in top beds.

  1. Columns are casted without mention raiser

It is considered as one of the least occurring mistakes in buildings.

  1. Scaffolding remainders on improper land

In most of the residential buildings, pedestal of about one-meter is observed. Fly-ash or sand is used as filling stuff for raising plinth degree, because they are cheaply available in Vijayawada market. Scaffolding work is started before strong hardening of plinth filling and perpendicular members rest on plinth-filling. As bearing capacity of freshly filled dirt is low, it allows sinking of supports.

  1. Factors doing edifice mistakes related to contractor

Consequences of contractor & A ; worker related mistakes

  1. Consequences of Consultant related mistakes

  1. Consequences of General Questions

From the whole exercising, it is understood that building mistakes occur due to assorted factors, but most of them related to human factors. It is understood from the assorted consequences for similar inquiries that there is huge fluctuation in accomplishments in workers.

  1. DecisionFeasible solution/Proposal for betterment in accomplishments of building workers

It can be proposed from the whole analyses that a preparation institute can increase the quality of plants go oning in Vijayawada.


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3. Desai, U.C. , 2001. Low-cost housingaˆ? : Common errors in building.The Indian Concrete Journal, ( January ) .

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  1. H. Abdul Rahman, M. A. Berawi, A. R. Berawi, O. Mohamed, M. Othman and I. A. Yahya, Delay extenuation in the Malayan building industry, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132 ( 2 ) , 2006, 125-133

I. Undertaking direction

two. Subcontractor

three. Lack experience in labours

four. Language barrier in communicating

v. Unsuitable building equipment’s

six. Poor weather status

seven. Limited clip

eight. Limited cost

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