As chest and abdominal discomfort, trembling and

As Humans we are all afraid of something. The reluctant or
unwillingness to do something for the fear of the outcome. The sensation of
anxiety and nervousness. For certain people these emotions become so intense
that being afraid turns into fear.  One
of the most basic human emotions that is ancient and universal. However, some
people possess the emotion of fear so deeply that it becomes irrational. That
irrational fear manifests its self into a phobia. This paper will attempt to
define phobias, analyze the different psychological reasoning for the
development of phobias’ and explore the three broad categories of phobias and
the treatments.

Anxiety is an emotion
like fear, with one critical difference. Nothing triggers the feeling of
anxiety. This emotion manifests it’s self-due to the anticipation of impending
danger or the occurrence of something undesirable, but the danger is no longer
happening. Anxiety can be mild or intense, a little of it keeps you alert. When
anxiety becomes long lasting and too intense and stars to interfere with daily
lifestyle, it has turned into a phobia. When a person has a Phobia for an
object or situation. They do whatever they can to avoid all possible contact
with the target of their fear, they often ponder on the possibilities of
encountering in a set circumstance. “The phobic symptoms are so intense that
they cause distress or interfere with social or occupational activities of the
person (Singh, 2016).” A phobia of a certain object or situation is not
something that one can usually control nor predict. When danger takes an
individual by surprise the environment becomes more stressful. Generally,
phobias can be a result of inheritance of genes, negative experience or
unfavorable incident. Individuals with phobias may experience symptoms of
sweating, shortness of breath, chest and abdominal discomfort, trembling and
heart palpitations (Leifer, 1966) .

Numerous Psychologist
have researched the explanation of phobias. It was classified as an anxiety
disorders, which fundamentally are anxiety disorders based on fear. Generally,
phobias are defied as avoidance and fearful, exaggerated reactions to certain
situations, cations and objects (Leifer, 1966). Freud (1909) in his
psychoanalytic theory suggest that the development of phobias in humans was
largely reflected on regression and displacement of aggressive and sexual
drives. He believed that phobias were symptoms of unsettled dispute between the
superego and the Id. These disputes or conflicts stemmed from childhood and is
later displaced or repressed onto the feared object and the original source of
the phobia was not the object (Leifer, 1966). 

Other researcher’s such as, Seligman (1971) Marks (1987; Marks &
Nesse, 1994), and Menzies and Clarke (1995) believed phobias were an
evolutionary phenomenon. “The stimuli feared by phobias reflect the dangers
that our prehistoric ancestors faced in their Pleistocene Savannah environment
(H. Merckelback et. al.).” Because of natural selection, fear of these
evolutionary dangers and situations have become genetically coded within
humans. Ohman (1993) although, argued that “phobic stimuli are analyzed by fast
and subcortical information processing routines. These information processing
routines would provide a crude analysis of the stimulus and then initiate an
immediate fear response (H. Merckelback et. al.)”. Insulating that, a phobias
reaction to fear the phobic stimulus, emerges before the person becomes fully