Audit And Management Control In Business Firms Accounting Essay

In the accent of the importance of creativeness and invention as portion of the features of the modern organisations, it is besides of import to pay attending on the organisation ‘s response in extremely dynamic and competitory environments. Therefore, the control within the organisation is of import in order to guarantee that the people and their public presentation is aligned and can reply the demands of the organisation. The extended usage of formal processs and regulations and occupation standardisation as instruments of organisational control can make rigidnesss which can smother inaugural and creativeness among directors and employees particularly at the lower degrees in an organisation. The principle for the many modern twenty-four hours organisations suggests that there should be plans in concern houses wherein the direction is focused on the realisation of their through improvisations or little alterations in established work processs or working tools or production processes undertaken at the enterprise of lower-level employees or directors result in significant nest eggs in cost or in company ‘s fight. The possible loss of such originative employee enterprises and thoughts as a consequence of overly “ tight ” control of operations is a “ cost ” which directors should maintain in head in planing systems for commanding operations.The purpose of the paper is to understand the aim of audit and direction control that is implemented among the concern houses and this can be possible through understanding the different procedures of audit and direction control.

In order to ease the probe, there are aims that will function as the counsel of the survey. First is to find the rule of control. Second is to find the application of assorted controls in the organisation such as the accounting control and the issues related to the control execution. Third is to turn to the control processes such as the map of accounting and scrutinizing in easing the control. And 4th is to explicate some suggestions in beef uping the control maps and procedures in the organisations.

Basic Principles of Management

There has been development in the field of direction which regards to the organic structure of rules to be applied in carry oning the concern. These cardinal rules have been developed through the old ages of practical experience. They can be applied in any concerns – big or little, partnership or corporation, industrial or commercial – for they are based upon the apprehension or truth that in their cardinal aims and operation all concerns are likewise.

It is the application of the rules that is varied suited to the demands of the single concern. Just as an car, it is non the innovation of any one adult male but an collection of the innovation of many, so the organic structure of rules has been the part of a figure of work forces in the direction field ( Rodriguez & A ; Echanis, 1993 ) .In concentrating to the thought of “ control ” it normally falls in the class of standardisation. The rule of standardisation arrives whenever operable, best patterns should be determined, expressed in footings of definite units or criterions and adopted as a form for usage in operation or public presentation and in planning and control. A criterion is a norm, regulation, theoretical account, size, type, quality, or step, which is set up or established such that future things or activities will e expected to conform to it.

Therefore, puting up of criterions is indispensable towards the sound direction ( ACCA, 2008 ) .In concern there can be developed an infinite assortment of criterions, such as criterions of methods, procedure, undertaking, operation, clip, stuff, design, and others. When it comes in direction or disposal, the criterions or public presentation will give the direction definite steps by which to estimate efficiency, to measure and command current public presentation and to gauge and be after for the hereafter Daroca & A ; Nourayi, 1996 ) .

With the aid of such criterion, the direction has a definite footing of comparing, a manner of cognizing whether the organisation is working at its full productive capacity or how far it falls below the degree it is capable of making.Arriving at the rule of control, the planning is given a small value unless there is a subsequent control to do certain that the programs are carried out. After the programs have been made and instructions issued, those in-charge must hold some agencies of finding whether the programs are being carried out ( Calhoun, Oliverio, & A ; Wolitzer, 1999 ) . In many cases, finding is done through observations of the work in procedure or scrutiny or the finished occupation. In other instances, a definite system of control is instituted whereby, work is first issued and orders given and so through observation, review, and the usage of records, those in charge can more determine that the programs are being carried out ( Guttierrez, Pura, & A ; Garcia, 1994 ) .In general, the audit and direction control do non portion the same significance but comes together with a intent of procuring the fiscal wellness of the organisation. The direction must recognize the alterations that might make an impact in the organisation. Therefore, the particular controls are needed to supply the effectual nature of operation.

It is of import, in the managerial controls, that the direction sporadically examine the systems implemented and if necessary, modify the system to guarantee that it remains effectual and extinguish the unneeded controls that may go onerous. Most likely among the organisations, the direction strengthens its controls through giving it precedence and replying the passages in the industry. These controls are besides of import demand in executing the periodic appraisal and describing any lacks. In order to guarantee that the direction control is implemented among its assorted sections, the organisation ‘s internal and external hearers are called to supply the accurate and effectual aid in measuring the fiscal position and others like stock list, managing hard currency flows, and proposing assorted ways of get the better ofing failings that are disclosed ( Havens, 2000 ) .

The Control

In an organisation wherein a group of individuals working together for specified intents or ends there exist the organizational and personal ends. Based on the Exhibit 1 ( see Appendices ) there may be a spread between personal ends and organisational ends, this suggests the demands to plan a control system that will ease the end congruity. In the application of commanding pattern in the organisations, it typically embodies the activities that include the restraining, checking, and actuating influences exercised by the direction ( Vanzante & A ; Ketcham, 2005 ) . The control requires cognition of what is being done, what conditions. When necessary, it includes the power to oblige disciplinary action to be taken ( CCAB, 2009 ; Leibowitz & A ; Reinsten, 2009 ) . Control keeps the activities of an endeavor within their proper channels. The behavioural facet of control should non merely contract the spread between personal ends and organisational ends but should besides actuate employees to endeavor toward these organisational ends.

The formal control system must assist supply the tools to act upon the behaviour of the employees towards the attainment of coveted ends. The control system consists of the control processes and the control construction ( Rodriguez & A ; Echanis, 1993 ; Guttierrez, Pura, & A ; Garcia, 1994 ) .

Overview of the Control Process

Control is the procedure of guaranting direction that organisation programs, plans, and specific undertakings are carried out efficaciously and expeditiously. Plans and plans are normally translated into quantitatively measured marks like company market portion or company gross revenues for specific periods of clip. For control intents, depending on the size of the organisation, these marks are normally made the duties of persons heading smaller units within the organisation. When marks are met by these units, they are considered effectual ( Allen & A ; Bunting, 2008 ) .

In making its work to run into its mark, an organisation unit utilizes resources. The organisation unit is efficient if it is able to utilize the minimal sum of the resources in run intoing its marks. Therefore, direction should be concerned non merely on the extent to which marks are achieved but besides with the costs incurred in run intoing these marks. This procedure of supervising the attachment of public presentation to programs and plans and actuating employees to adhere to these programs is called Management Control ( Guttierrez, Pura, & A ; Garcia, 1994 ) .In the model of the control procedure ( Exhibit 2 ) there involves the three basic activities: ( 1 ) constitution of constitution of criterions, ( 2 ) analysis of public presentations, and ( 3 ) rectification of divergences from criterions or programs. These activities are undertaken in this sequence in a formal control system.

Normally, a company manual sets forth the processs to be followed for each activity, the day of the months when each activity is supposed to be completed and the paper signifiers that are to be used. The treatment of these three BASICs control activities in the undermentioned subdivisions is developed under the premise that a formal system is in topographic point ( Jiambalvo & A ; Kennedy, 2002 ) .First, the Establishment of Standards is a procedure by which standards or benchmarks are set against which existent public presentation can be measured. When a formal control system is in topographic point, the most common tool used by direction as a benchmark is the budget. The budget is quantitative look of a program of action.

The maestro budget integrates the quantitative marks of the different units within the organisation and shows the expected impact of these on income, balance sheet and hard currency flows. As is apparent in the listing, budgeting takes off from planning and scheduling premises. Furthermore, in the readying of the operating budget, it is necessary for the company to develop criterions for manpower demands, stuffs demands and other operating disbursals for the mark degrees of Gross saless and Production ( Tsuji & A ; Garner, 1995 ) .Second, the Analysis of Performance wherein the established criterions should be used to mensurate the public presentation and the control system is to act upon people to alter their behaviour. When comparing existent public presentation with the criterions, studies should be prepared for direction to signal whether directors and their units are executing satisfactorily or non. These studies are based on fiscal and non-financial informations. In utilizing the fiscal information, the accounting information does non hold to be presented in conformance with by and large accepted accounting rules ( ACCA, 2008 ) .

And 3rd, the Correction of Deviation which pertains to the analysis of public presentation and should take to the remedial actions when existent public presentation of directors, or their several units, is non in conformity with planned public presentation. This activity could feed back to the first measure of the control procedure such as the constitution or re-construction of new criterions that is why the control procedure is considered as repeating rhythm of activities as shown in Exhibit 2. The presence of divergences like in scrutinizing may simply necessitate a alteration of programs or plans.

On the other manus, it may necessitate a drastic alteration in the company ‘s organisation construction or a alteration in directors. The rectification of divergence may besides necessitate a alteration in engineering specifications or the procedure of managerial and accounting control ( CCAB, 2009 ) .

Issues in Control

In planing a control system or in following a control tool or technique, the direction must weigh the benefits to be derived from the system against the costs of put ining and keeping the system. But despite of the execution of the criterions, the fiscal direction faces assorted challenges in which calls the attending of the hearers. One of the greatest and difficult to get the better of challenge in internal controls are composed of three factors. The answerability and dependability of the studies, the consistence of the information, and proficiency of the people engaged in the internal controls.

There are besides jobs sing the completeness of the fiscal studies and the engagement of the erroneous or inaccurate informations collection ( Calhoun, Oliverio, & A ; Wolitzer, 1999 ) . In the universe were the challenges hinder the development and advancement of the organisation, it is a great chance to turn to those challenges and make a room to work out them. These challenges are the manner for the concern leaders to convey back the competence in the internal auditing.

Through the past experiences and appraisal of the senior directors, there is a positive manner to make a criterion that can convey the award and trust in scrutinizing and minimise the impact of the challenges in the service. Furthermore, most of the past researches sing on the effectivity of the auditing, identified that the duty of the hearer towards his work can be the either the challenge or the benefit in the internal auditing ( ANAO, 2004 ) . If the issue of public presentation is non to the full resolves so there is a train of other effects and emerging challenges. To minimise the impact of the challenges which appeared in the audit patterns, there should besides be alterations in the accounting and scrutinizing instruction ( ACCA, 2008 ) . If there is an addition alteration in the nature of the auditing, so the instruction should supply extra pedagogical intercession that is centered in the audit patterns ( Johnson, et al. , 2003 ) .

Management and Control Function

The workplace constitutes an of import section of a modern endeavor.

The direction is concerned with the way and supervising of the office work. Part of the office work includes the recording of the minutess every bit good as the consequences thereof, composing and replying letters, registering documents, calculating, and other related activities. Therefore, the office direction is fundamentally concerned with the overall way of clerical activities, as distinguished from such activities as finance, fabrication, gross revenues, forces, and buying ( Allen & A ; Bunting, 2008 ) .The office direction map possibly specialized through the assignment of office directors. If the company has an office director, he, hence, will be responsible for the efficient executing of office direction and services. The office director must hold a general cognition of every portion of the endeavor and a really intimate cognition of some parts. He must work out jobs affecting the practically every activity in managerial work.

The director may hold an helper to whom he assigns such duty, but the basic bid and contract are vested in him ( Hull, Wright, & A ; Ennew, 2002 ) .The map of direction in footings of control is besides dependent on size, on the nature of the concern, and on the doctrine of top direction. The doctrine of top direction as respects in centralising or deconcentrating the office map will impact the organisation. However, the office direction is non merely a facilitating map. It is besides an of import centre for coordination. The office director is a good executive and supervisor who is expert in clerical inside informations and office processs.

At the same clip, he must recognize that records and all the things he deals with are merely means to ease executive control and to advance the smooth operation of the productive maps ( Vanzante & A ; Ketcham, 2005 ) .

Importance of Management Control

The map of direction in the organisation is considered as portion of put to deathing the controls. First, the office work in the direction is a facilitating map which is an indispensable medium through which the assorted activities of an endeavor are fused together and see as the life blood of any modern endeavor. Second, the office services are the bases of the full managerial activities of planning, organizing, directing, and commanding ( Rodriguez & A ; Echanis, 1993 ) .

Facts and information are necessary for intelligent planning. These informations involved separate records which in bend, involves office ordination, requires the exchange of information and instructions and equal communications between members of direction. Finally, all activities involved necessitate the full coordination of the office. Third is the proficient and single work of practically every section of the endeavor is implemented by the office direction map ( Healy-Burress, 2007 ) .

Management Control Tools

In most little concerns, the proprietor or director exercises the personal control over the concern. This allows him to hold an intimate cognition of cardinal control variables such as merchandise gross revenues, salesmen ‘s public presentation and certain single client ‘s orders. Therefore, the demands of the proprietor or director with respect to the signifier frequence and sum of item in these studies will differ from those bigger concerns ( Hull, Wright, & A ; Ennew, 2002 ) .

The control reports that are often used in the big organisations are shown in Exhibit 3 which is should be prepared by the comptrollers. The Financial Accounting Reports that is prepared in conformity with the by and large accepted accounting rules. The balance sheet and income statement besides serve as feedback devices to the direction sing the soundness of the company ‘s programs and plans ( Pike & A ; Neale, 1999 ) . The direction may revise the programs and plans if the information reflected on the interim balance sheets and income statements signals the demand for alteration. Another is the Measurement Reports that presents the direction sum-ups and analysis of divergences from established criterions or programs ( Jiambalvo & A ; Kennedy, 2002 ) . On the other manus, the Responsibility Accounting Reports and Control Structure step the effectivity and efficiency of the duty centres.

A duty centre is an organisational unit headed by a director who is accountable for the work done by his organisational unit. Through these studies, the audit commission can hold a point of beginning in scrutinizing the fiscal position or wellness of the organisation.Audit ControlAuditing or internal auditing is considered to be one of the most nerve-racking plants in the corporate universe. Many hearers are placed under the series of work loads, deadlines, and force per unit areas. In this, the production of quality work can be a sinister.

Added to that is the being of altering functions which considered as puting the hearer is a disadvantage state of affairs. The emphasis and force per unit area felt by the hearers might be the cause of sub-standard work outcomes. Hearers, albeit had a professional record and certificates should work harmonizing to the proviso of policies and processs. This is settled in order to follow the criterion, and one of the patterns applied in the audit planning. Audit planning is created to utilize the resources in an efficient manner, follow the organisational aims, and have a control over the auditing procedure.

The uninterrupted execution of audit planning establishes the growing and betterment of the hearer ‘s public presentation. In add-on, the audit planning can cut down the deceitful activities that might present menace non merely in the organisation but besides in the unity and credibleness of the profession. Although defined as a nerve-racking occupation, hearer ‘s still adhere on the audit planning and their related activities to aline the direction and control towards the organisational ends.

The audit procedures are created to procure the involvement of the client or the organisation and therefore, this really same ground should be on the top precedence of the hearer in audit planning. The audit planning might get down in accepting and executing the initial audit through touring in client ‘s workss and offices. It is of import that the hearer understand the nature of client ‘s concern in order to reexamine the different studies such as the cardinal ratios with their rivals, and direction controls and process implemented.

The following measure is to measure the concern hazard by placing the assorted battles of the concern and the parties involve. In executing the analytical processs, it is more likely appropriate to confer with the accounting rules used by the organisation and suggests other accounting techniques to deduce in the most desirable fiscal statements.It is of import that the hearers took duty in their action which is founded by their instruction, preparation, and professionalism. The qualities of hearer ‘s are frequently taken to their experience and criterions in professionalism. In add-on, the planning phase in scrutinizing is one of the most indispensable elements that might deduce in the ability of the hearers in put to deathing professionalism in their field. The importance of be aftering represents the appropriate action that an hearer can make, which is non entirely trusting in the basic cognition but besides through the organisational criterions.

Scope of the Audit Practices

The chief concern of the audit activities is to find the degree of the professionalism in the internal maps.

In add-on, to find the hazards, such as deceitful actions, that might blight the organisation. If the hazards are non recognized early, the organisation ‘s public presentation and effectivity in the industry might saturate until wholly fade out. And this is the other face of intuition on why do some organisation fail to be in the market for a long clip. Auditing pattern and related activities should see and discourse the pertinence or inapplicability of the issues involved in scrutinizing. The support of the audits and the 3rd party are so critical in the creative activity of the studies.

Subsequently, the appraisal of hazards is determined through understanding the range, deepness, and position of the environment all for the pursuit of the quality studies and dependability of the information ( IRS, 2003 ) .The audit pattern lies in the custodies of the people and hence, they should pull off good the internal pattern without any vacillation and influence from the other people. It is suggested that the independency of the people is so necessary and can be manifested in the direction of the full organisation. Independence of the people reflects in the fulfilment of the employee on to their appropriate duties. With this accent on the function of the people in the workplace, the function of the hearers can be free from the assorted interventions which might impact the complexness of the internal auditing.Through the antiphonal action of the forces, the public presentation can be delivered and so, communicated through the presence of a sound fiscal study. The range of the standardised auditing can assist construct the proficiency among the internal controls and directors. The broadened criterions can cover the battles with the clients and consultancy services.

The aid of the hearers is indispensable, most particularly if the people working in the internal controls have the cognition, accomplishments, and competences in confronting the challenges and the procedure of battle. It is advised that an hearer should possess all of the ideal features in order to execute good on the auditing and the other related public presentations ( Franzel, 2008 ) .


Role Played by Audit Committee

Within the corporation, an effectual audit commission should be established. Therefore, the board should set up an audit commission with written footings of mention which deals clearly with its function, authorization and responsibilities. The function of audit commission is chiefly through measuring or scrutinizing the fiscal coverage of the fiscal information. The intent of the scrutiny of the fiscal coverage is to guarantee that all the information involved in the study is right, dependable, and sufficient. The board has the power over the assignment, re-appointment, or replacing and even remotion of the hearers based on their contract and reappraisal on the public presentation as portion of forestalling any deceitful action and through the company ‘s conformity with the corporate administration. The duty of the audit commission is to mention on the conditions stipulated in the Accounting Standard and has independency or the ability to make determinations without the influence of the other people, such as the Board member, director, or another hearer.

The related minutess are observed and assessed to advance the credibleness of the information. The audit commission had timely treatments with the other hearers sing the periods of internal control systems, audit planning, and the range of scrutinizing such as the engagement of the observations of the hearers.In add-on, the reappraisal on the implemented and conformity of the internal system is besides portion of the probe. The professionalism among the authorization remains the top precedence of the audit commission. In the probe of the commission, the hearers have the authorization to inquiries any mistakes found within any dealing because they are allowed to find the hazards that might impact the growing of the company. The auditing pattern and related activities involved in scrutinizing are through the apprehension of the range, deepness and position of the corporation ‘s environment.

The pattern of the audit commission can be manifested within the organisation and free from the assorted interventions most particularly in footings of histories in internal auditing. As the consequence of their probes, the consequences are forwarded to the Board who have the lone corporate organic structure to hold an entree on the information and seeks for the professional advice, if necessary. With the antiphonal actions of the hearers, the Board can utilize the fiscal studies as mentions in making determinations. The rescue of the standardised auditing in the commission builds the proficiency and beef uping the control among the directors and the company ‘s conformity with the corporate administration.

D. Role Played by External Auditor

In the thought of corporate administration is anticipated to stay and be effectual in the organisation. The procedure of corporate administration should be monitored and controlled by the Board with the aims of determination devising, answerability, and monitoring.

In the high spot of answerability, the direction is bound to guarantee the involvement of the stockholders and other stakeholders. The recommendation to turn to the functions played by the external hearers is about the same as the functions of the audit commission which is to lend in the corporate administration of the organisation. External hearers are the organic structures understand the relationship of the house with the other establishments like the Bankss and the measuring the impacts that it might make. It is recommended that the external hearer should be knowing in turn toing the chief agent jobs that involves in the houses construction and market public presentation. Therefore, the external hearer ‘s part towards the corporate administration is maximized through carry throughing the long-run purposes of the organisation, guaranting the protection of the stockholder and employees, guaranting the conformity of the organisation towards the society and, every bit good as, in environment, following the Torahs and ordinances implemented, and through showing the correct and dependable fiscal studies.

Audit Quality and Importance

The demand for the high quality fiscal studies can turn to the issues associating the internal controls. The direction in internal control can hold the ability to develop and understand the influential factors in the concern environment.

Pull offing the internal control and its related activity can be equaled to the thought of guaranting that the internal personal businesss are handled efficaciously, without doing excessively much job in the full organisation. Management is besides believed to get down with the usage of the appropriate communicating. In all facets of concern interactions and easing the advancement, the communicating can non be set aside.Communication is valued most in presenting the information to the leaders that can turn to the issues and carry through the answerability. More of import, the communicating is extremely suggested to minimise the revolving force per unit area within the organisation, and at the same clip, stress the importance of scrutinizing ( Franzel, 2008 ) .

In the deliberation of the leaders through the broadened position of internal auditing, there is one thing wherein they find really of import and considered as the benefit of the internal auditing. The designation of the hazards in the direction may rise the watchful degree of the people and the leaders are compelled to pull off it good. Through the monolithic communicating and puting the quality in it, the demands that set in the standardised auditing can be fulfilled and the application of the hazard direction can be besides set.Monitoring is one of the common actions involved in the quality of internal control and public presentation in the system. For over clip, it is a large quandary for the propellors and directors to cover with the internal jobs and taking portion in the necessary disciplinary actions. The procedure of monitoring can be in the ways of comparing the existent consequences to the other studies already made in the countries such as budgeting, and can guarantee the effectivity of the internal audit map.

In the fiscal probe of the hearers, the procedure of fiscal coverage and pull offing the hazards can be the most of import consequences. The duty of the direction to roll up and describe the information can be the start of a complete, accurate, and dependable fiscal statements ( McGladrey & A ; Pullen, LLP, 2008 ) .

Internal Auditing Standards vs. Professional and Ethical Standards and Guidance

The criterions in the nature of internal auditing are characterized through the cooperation of the parties in the internal audit activities. Through the application of these criterions, the development can be expected. First, there is a demand for the blessing by the audit commission sing the intent, authorization, and the duty of the internal audit activity.

Under the internal auditing, the issue of independency and the internal hearers are emphasized which will be the chief aim of the public presentation of their work. With this value on the independency of the people, the proficiency and betterment in the nature of their work can be assured.The duty of the hearers is to keep the quality of the scrutinizing that can add value to the internal audit within the organisation and appraisal of the hazards.

In add-on, the internal auditing is expected to measure and lend to the betterment of the internal control, hazard direction, development of the long-run program of the organisation, disciplinary attack, and follow the procedure of monitoring to accomplish the aims of the organisation ( IIA, 2005 ) . All of the applied processs under the criterions of internal auditing are intentionally made to guarantee that there is an effectual direction control.On the other manus, the codification of moralss is wholly made to advance the internal audit profession. This counsel establishes the trust and provides a strong foundation in the trust of the hearer ‘s judgement.

The unity among the hearers is built by detecting the jurisprudence, while lending in the legitimate and ethical aims of the organisation. In add-on, the internal hearers are expected to exhibit the highest degree of professionalism and objectiveness in footings roll uping the necessary informations, measuring the information, and communicating. To further the dependability of the information, the hearers avoid unneeded actions, activities, or relationships that might impact their credibleness and objectiveness.

In the boundaries of moralss, there should stay a regard in the ownership of the information. Meaning, the hearers themselves are non allowed to utilize the information for their ain benefit and it is under the legal supervising that all the information should be addressed under the appropriate authorization. Under the ethical criterions, the clients are besides protected with the support to their right in confidentialities, which suppresses the action of the hearer if the client did non let the usage of information in the intent of battle ( Meredith, 2009 ) . Through the cognition, accomplishments, and experience of the internal hearers, their functions in the organisation is emphasized towards the go oning professional development ( IIA, 2005 ) .

Furthermore, the cardinal duty of the pattern in scrutinizing is to pay attending in the public involvement, professional competency and due attention for judgement, professional independency, and the confidentiality in which emphasized in the ethical guidelines ( Meredith, 2009 ) .