Autophagy is a fundamental and conserved self-sustaining

Autophagy is a fundamental and
conserved self-sustaining degradative pathway that is the key to balancing
sources of energy at critical times in development and in response to nutrient
starvation (Parzych and
Klionsky 2014). The main triggers for autophagy are predominantly
glucose and amino acids like glutamine deficiencies (Suzuki et al., 2007). It also acts as a
cytoprotective mechanism by preventing the accumulation of toxic proteins as
well as an immunological participant in the elimination of invasive microbes
and antigen presentation (Feng
et al., 2014). Regarding cancerous cells, autophagy is triggered by
chemotherapy noted as resistance (Li, Ying-Jie et al.??????).

The therapeutic potential of autophagy for the
treatment of cancer and other diseases is a difficult problem overwhelmed by
the inconsistency of the complicated interaction between the autophagic and
apoptotic mechanism. Through the lifetime of cells, the chief question it asks
itself is to resume to be (autophagy) or not to be (apoptosis). This decision
is implemented by pathways involving the selective autophagy and cell death
machinery. The main question for making the connection is asking; how autophagy
acts as both a protector and executioner of cell death (Gump and Thorburn 2018).