Background/Introduction as the data or control of data



A distributed system can be
defined as the data or control of data that is stored on multiple computers or
in separate location. It is more expose to security threats than centralized
database management system (CDBMS). Object-oriented database model is the
replica of distributed database. It increases the data control level in
database system. Relational database is more mature or complete than
object-oriented model in terms of the development of security standards and procedures.
It can be viewed from the aspects of standards compatibility as object-oriented
model still do not acquire a compatible standards. While for relational
databases, the compatibility standards are well-defined. This paper will mainly
discuss on the security concerns of databases and distributed databases,
security problems found in object-oriented and relational database model,
security problems in both models and security comparison of each model.

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There are a few requirements
which must be satisfied for a secure database, which includes substantial
integrity, logical integrity, obtainable when needed, contain review system,
fundamental integrity, controlled access to data, system validation and
implication protection on sensitive data. The purpose for defining these
requirements is to ensure data stored in DBMS is protected from illegal action.
The illegal action can be achieved by using access controls, concurrency
controls, two phase commit procedure and inference reduction strategies. The
access permission can be determined by three standards which are data
availability, access adequacy and authenticity assurance. Concurrency control
plays an important role to protect the integrity of data. However, there occur
some concurrency problems which are lost update, unsynchronized transactions
and unrepeatable data. The problems can be solved by implementing the locking
or timestamp method. In DBMS multilevel access system, users are restricted
from acquire a complete data access. This is probably due to secrecy
requirements or loyalty to the principal of least privilege. Complete data
access is forbidden in case user has special access privileges. A secure
multilevel database design can protect user to make inferences. The inference
protection strategies include data suppression, logging every move users make,
and perturbation of data.





There are a few references that
has been reviewed and used in this article. Basically, the security features
are discussed based on Distributed Database Management System Model. There are
two models available which are object-oriented and relational data model. 1
studied on several factors which include single and multilevel access controls
(MAC), protection and integrity maintenance. The security of a database is not
only determined based on the security features, but it also query the
effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery of these characteristics.











result outcome/contribution


Comparison between relational database
and object-oriented database



Relational database

Object-oriented database


Extended relational model with
object-oriented concepts

Pure object-oriented concepts

Data stored

Data is stored in the form of
tables which contains rows and columns. Every column in the table has its
specific name and every row of the table has its own primary key.

Data is stored along with its
actions that processes or reads the existing data. The data is stored in the
form of objects in object-oriented database.

Access controls

Access form is based on view. SQL
VIEW command is created based on view which is a logical table.

Access is controlled by
classifying elements of the database. The basic element of this classification
is the object.


A relational DBMS takes a more
global approach 2.

An object-oriented database executes
constraint checking methods on the affected objects to maintain integrity
before and after an update.



Present. Data is encapsulated
in the object. Object level starts the control for access, modification, and

Complexity association

Simpler than object-oriented

More complex than relational

Control of system access and multilevel access

Less difficult due to  the role of client and server is maintained

More difficult. Because the
roles of client and server are not well defined.





Database security is a concern
issue in today’s technological world. This article studies about database
security issues and how the database model affects database system security.
Object-oriented database and relational database exhibit different security
protection. It is shown that RDBMS is the better choice for a distributed
application as relational model is more mature and the existing standards are
globally accepted.