(b) parts: a fluid matrix, the plasma, in

(b) liver

(c) graafian follicle

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(d) intestine.

Answer and Explanation:

1. (d): It is the middle layer of 3 layered Mucosa (outer muscularis mucosa, middle lamina propria and inner simple colunar epithelium) of intestine. It is made up of a highly vascular connective tissue containing lymphatic nodules.

2. Lymph differs from blood in possessing

(a) only WBC

(b) more RBC and WBC

(c) more RBC and few WBC

(d) more WBC and few RBC.

Answer and Explanation:

2. (a): Lymph is a colourless, mobile, fluid connective tissue. The lymph is usually a clear, transparent fluid. It consists of two parts: a fluid matrix, the plasma, in which float amoeboid cells, the white blood corpuscles, or leucocytes. The lymph differs from the blood in lacking red corpuscles, platelets and some plasma proteins, and in having less calcium and phosphorus than the blood.

3. Mineral found in red pigment of vertebrate blood is

(a) magnesium

(b) iron

(c) calcium

(d) copper.

Answer and Explanation:

3. (b): Red pigment of vertebrate blood is haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is a conjugated protein. It consists of a basic protein globin joined to a nonprotein group heme, hence the name haemoglobin. Heme is an iron-porphyrin ring. A mammalian haemoglobin molecule is a complex of 4 heme molecules joined with 4 globin molecules.

4. Histamine secreting cells are found in

(a) connective tissues

(b) lungs

(c) muscular tissue

(d) nervous tissue.

Answer and Explanation:

4. (a): Histamine, involved in allergic and inflammatory reactions, is secreted by mast cells that are found in connective tissue. They are small oval cells having abundant large granules in the cytoplasm.

5. Haversian canals occur in

(a) humerus

(b) pubis

(c) scapula

(d) clavicle.

Answer and Explanation:

5. (a): Small bones are solid. Long bones, such as the humerus and femur, have a cavity, the marrow cavity, at the centre. The substance of the bone is distinguishable into 3 regions: periosteum, matrix and endosteum. The matrix of bone along with the bone forming cells (osteoblasts) is arranged in concentric layers (lamellae) round the small canals which run parallel to the long axis (shaft) of the bone.

These canals, called Haversian canals, are interconnected with one another via Volkmann’s canals and contain a blood vessel a nerve and a lymph vessel. Bone cells remain alive and once they have completely surrounded by the hard bone matrix, they are called osteocytes the osteocytes are embedded in fluid-filled cavities within the concentric lamellae. These cavities are known as lacunae and occur at regular intervals in these concentric layers of bone tissue.

The lacunae are connected to one another and to the Haversian canals by a system of interconnecting canals known as canaliculi. Each Haversian canal, its concentric lamellae, lacunae with osteocytes and canaliculi forms a long cylinder and is called a Haversian system. Separate Haversian systems are joined to each other by means of interstitial lamellae.

6. Characteristics of smooth muscle fibres are

(a) spindle-shaped, unbranched, nonstriated, uninucleate and involuntary

(b) spindle-shaped, unbranched, unstriped, multinucleate and involuntary

(c) cylindrical, unbranched, unstriped, multinucleate and involuntary

(d) cylindrical, unbranched, striated, multinucleate and voluntary.

Answer and Explanation:

6. (a): The smooth muscle consists of long, narrow unbranched spindle-shaped fibres. Each fibre contains a single oval nucleus in its thick middle part. The cross- striations are absent so that the fibres look smooth, hence the name nonstriated. Its contraction is not under the control of the animal, therefore, also called involuntary muscle.

7. Component of blood responsible for producing antibodies is

(a) thrombocytes

(b) monocytes

(c) erythrocytes

(d) lympocytes.

Answer and Explanation:

7. (d): Lymphocytes have a very large, rounded nucleus and scanty cytoplasm. They are nonmotile and nonphagocytic. They secrete antibodies to destory microbes and their toxins, reject grafts and kill tumour cells. They also help in healing of injuries. Thrombocytes aid in clotting of blood. Monocytes are phagocytic in nature. RBCs transport gases in the body.

8. Afferent nerve fibre carries impulses from

(a) effector to central nervous system

(b) receptor to central nervous system

(c) central nervous system to muscles

(d) central nervous system to receptors.

Answer and Explanation:

8. (b): Afferent nerve fibres carry impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system. Efferent nerve fibres conduct nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the effector organs such as muscles and glands.

9. Formation of cartilage bones involves

(a) deposition of bony matter by osteoblasts and resorption by chondroclasts

(b) deposition of bony matter by osteoclasts

(c) deposition of bony matter by osteoclasts only

(d) deposition of bony matter by osteoblasts only.

Answer and Explanation:

9. (a): Bone is an unusual tissue in that it is continually being reconstructed. The osteoblasts secrete bone matrix, whereas the large, much branched, motile, lysosome-rich, multinucleate cells, called osteoclasts, destroy bone matrix. The twin process of resorption and resconstruction enables a particular bone to remodel its structure to meet any change in the mechanical requirements of the animal during its development.

10. The layer of actively dividing cells of skin is termed as

(a) Stratum compactum

(b) Stratum corneum

(c) Stratum malpighii/stratum germinativum

(d) Stratum lucidum.

Answer and Explanation:

10. (c): Stratum malpighii/stratum germinativum is the innermost layer of the skin consisting of one celled thick columnar epithelial cells. It lies on the basement layer. Its cells are active and continuously produce new cells by mitotic division that is why called germinative layer.

11. Hair present in the skin are

(a) epidermal in origin and made of dead cells

(b) epidermal in origin and made of living cells

(c) dermal in origin and made of living cells

(d) dermal in origin and made of dead cells.

Answer and Explanation:

11. (a): Each hair is present in a tubular pit called hair follicle which is made up by sinking of epidermis. Living cells are present only at the base of hair i.e. in hair papilla, rest of the hair is dead and is divisible into outer cuticle, middle cortex and inner medulla.

12. An epithelial tissue which has thin flat cells, arranged edge to edge so as to appear like closely packed tiles, is found to be present at

(a) outer surface of ovary

(b) inner lining of fallopian tube

(c) inner lining of stomach

(d) inner lining of cheeks.

Answer and Explanation:

12. (d): An epithelial tissue which has thin flat cells, arranged edge to edge so as to appear like closely packed tiles is known as pseudostratified epithelium. It covers moist surfaces where there is little wear and tear by friction such as inner lining of cheeks.

13. The life span of human WBC is approximately

(a) between 2 to 3 months

(b) more than 4 months

(c) less than 10 days

(d) between 20 to 30 days.

Answer and Explanation:

13. (c): WBCs (also called leucocytes) are rounded or irregular colourless cells with a nucleus. They can change their shape and are capable of amoeboid movement. Leucocytes, formed in lymph nodes and red bone marrow, can produce antibodies and move through the walls of vessels to migrate to the sites of injuries, where they surround and isolate dead tissue, foreign bodies and bacteria. They survive for a few days generally 3-4 days after which they die and get phagocytized in blood, liver and lymph nodes.

14. Stratum germinativum is an example of which kind of epithelium?

(a) columnar

(b) squamous

(c) cuboidal

(d) ciliated.

Answer and Explanation:

14. (a): Stratum germinativum (also stratum basale or basal cell layer) is the layer of keratinocytes that lies at the base of the epidermis immediately above the dermis. It consists of a single layer of tall, simple columnar epithelial cells lying on a basement membrane. These cells undergo rapid cell division, mitosis to replenish the regular loss of skin by shedding from the surface. About 25% of the cells are melanocytes, which produce melanin which provides pigmentation for skin and hair.

15. Which of the following is agranulocyte?

(a) basophil

(b) neutrophil

(c) lymphocyte

(d) eosinophil.

Answer and Explanation:

15. (c): Agranulocytes are leucocytes that lack granules in the cytoplasm. They are formed in spleen and lymph nodes and bone marrow. Since lymphocyte does not have granules in their cytoplasm so it is called agranulocyte. Lymphocytes are important in the body’s defence and are responsible for immune reactions as the presence of antigens stimulates them to produce antibodies. Another type of agranulocyte is monocyte. The other three are granulocytes which are produced in red bone marrow.

16. Basement membrane is made up of

(a) no cell product of epithelial cell

(b) epidermal cell only

(c) endodermal cell

(d) both (b) and (c).

Answer and Explanation:

16. (a): Basement membrane (basal lamina) is a thin i sheet of fibrous proteins that underlies and supports the j cells of an epithelium, separating this from underlying tissue. Basement membranes are components of the extracellular matrix (= the viscous watery fluid that surrounds cells in animal tissue) and help to regulate passage of materials between epithelial cells and adjacent blood vessels. Each consists of a framework of collagen fibrils within which are glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysacc harides) and laminins, which are proteins that bind the basement membrane to neighbouring cells via cell adhesion molecules.

17. Protein present in cartilage is

(a) cartilagin

(b) ossein

(c) chondrin

(d) none of these.

Answer and Explanation:

17. (c): Chondrin is a protein present in the matrix of cartilage. It forms a constituent of a compound called chondrin sulphate. Chondrin sulphate consists of proteoglycans, that is protein chains bonded to long chains of disaccharide hyaluronic acid. Matrix of bone is made up of a protein called ossein.

18. Which of the following is not the main function of lymph glands?

(a) forming RBCs

(b) destroying bacteria

(c) forming WBCs

(d) forming antibodies.

Answer and Explanation:

18. (a): Formation of WBCs, antibodies and destruction of bacteria occur in lymph glands while formation of RBCs occur in bone marrow. Lymph gland is a rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Lymph glands filter lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they store lymphocytes (white blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels. They are also called a lymph node.

19. In mammals, histamine is secreted by

(a) lymphocytes

(b) mast cells

(c) fibroblasts

(d) histiocytes.

Answer and Explanation:

19. (b): Mast cells are found in the matrix of areolar connective tissue and secrete histamine (vasodilator), serotonin (vasoconstrictor) and heparin (anticoagulant). These take part in allergic reactions and also help in a body defence. Fibroblasts and histiocytes are also found in the matrix of areolar tissue. Fibroblasts secrete ground substance while histiocytes engulf the microbes, foreign particles and damaged cells. Lymphocytes are the type of leucocytes present in blood and secrete antibodies.

20. Tendon is made up of

(a) yellow fibrous connective tissue

(b) modified where fibrous tissue

(c) areolar tissue

(d) adipose tissue.

Answer and Explanation:

20. (b): White fibrous tissue has two forms : cords and sheets. The white fibres run parallel to form cords, called tendons. Tendon attaches a muscle to a bone. It consists of collagen fibres and is therefore inelastic.

They ensure that the force exerted by muscular contraction is transmitted to the relevant part of the body to be moved. Yellow elastic tissue also has two forms: cords and sheets. Here, cords are called ligaments. Adipose tissue is a fat storing loose connective tissue. Areolar tissue is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body.

21. Ligament is a/an

(a) inelastic white fibrous tissue

(b) modified white fibrous tissue

(c) modified yellow elastic fibrous tissue

(d) none of the above.

Answer and Explanation:

21. (c): Ligament occurs in the form of cords in a modified yellow elastic fibrous tissue and connects bone with a bone. Modified white fibrous tissue is present in the tendons.

22. The joint between atlas and axis is called

(a) angular joint

(b) hinge joint

(c) pivot joint

(d) saddle joint.

Answer and Explanation:

22. (c): Pivot joint is present between atlas and the axis in humans. In this joint articular end of one bone is fixed while the other can rotate over it. In angular joint, an oval condyle of one bone fits into an elliptical concavity of the other, e.g. wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints. Hinge joint allows movements in one plane only, e.g. knee joint. In saddle joint, small projection of one bone fits into a saddle-like depression of another bone.

23. Which statement is true for WBC?

(a) non-nucleated

(b) in deficiency, cancer is caused

(c) manufactured in thymus

(d) can squeeze through blood capillaries.

Answer and Explanation:

23. (d): WBCs are the colourless nucleated amoeboid cells that can squeeze through blood capillaries by a process known as diapedsis. The increase in their number causes leukaemia, a cancer. WBCs are of two tines. granulocytes (formed in bone marrow) and agranulocytes (formed in bone marrow and thymus).

24. Which pair is correct?

(a) sweat = temperature regulation

(b) saliva = sense of food taste

(c) sebum = sexual attraction

(d) humerus = hind leg.

Answer and Explanation:

24. (a): Sweat is secreted by sweat glands of skin and helps in regulating body temperature. Saliva is secreted by salivary glands and helps in digestion (carbohydrate drgestion). Sebum is the waxy secretion secreted by sebaceous glands. Sebum is a fatty mildly antiseptic material that protects, lubricates, and waterproofs the skin and hair and helps prevent desiccation. Humerus is the long bone of the upper arm. It articulates with the scapula at the glenoid cavity and with the ulna and radius at the elbow.

25. Characteristic of simple epithelium is that they

(a) are arranged indiscriminately

(b) make a definite layer

(c) continue to divide and help in organ function

(d) none of the above.

Answer and Explanation:

25. (b): Simple epithelium consists of a single layer of cells resting on a basement membrane. This makes a definite layer.

26. Proteoglycan in cartilages which is a part of polysaccharide is

(a) chondroitin

(b) ossein

(c) casein

(d) cartilagin.

Answer and Explanation:

26. (a): Proteoglycans consist of polysaccharide attached with a protein chondroitin. It is present in cartilage as well as in extracellular material. Ossein is a protein present in matrix of bone. Casein is a milk protein.

27. What is sarcomere?

(c) part between two H-line

(b) part between two A-line

(c) part between two I-band

(d) part between two Z-line.


(d) part between two Z-line.

28. Which cells do not form layer and remains structurally separate?

(a) epithelial cells

(b) muscle cells

(c) nerve cells

(d) gland cells.

Answer and Explanation:

28. (c): Nerve cells are the highly excitable cells, specialized for impulse conduction. They originate from neural plate of embryonic ectoderm and serve as structural and functional units of nervous tissue.

29. During an injury nasal septum gets damaged and for its recovery which cartilage is preferred?

(a) elastic cartilage

(b) hyaline cartilage

(c) calcified cartilage

(d) fibrous cartilage.

Answer and Explanation:

29. (b): Nasal septum consists of hyaline cartilage. It is bluish-green and translucent in appearance. It has fewer very fine white fibres in the matrix. This type of cartilage gives flexibility and support at the joints. Elastic, calcified and fibrous cartilages occur in other parts of body.

30. Melanin protects from

(a) U.V. rays

(b) visible rays

(c) infrared rays

(d) X-rays.

Answer and Explanation:

30. (a): Melanin is produced by specialized epidermal cells called melanophores (or melanocytes). Their dispersion in these cells is controlled by melanocyte – stimulating hormone and melatonin. Melanin, a pigment present in skin, protects it from harmful effects of UV rays. People living in tropics have more melanin in their skin which is an adaptation to protect themselves from harmful UV rays. Melanin cannot protect from infrared rays and X-rays.

31. Which of the following statements is true for lymph?

(a) WBC + serum

(b) blood – RBCs and some proteins

(c) RBCs + WBCs + plasma

(d) RBCs + proteins + platelets.

Answer and Explanation:

31. (b): Lymph (called tissue fluid in the intercellular spaces) is a vascular tissue consisting of two parts-a clear, colourless fluid matrix, the plasma and floating amoeboid cells, the white blood cells, mostly lymphocytes. It differs from the blood in lacking red blood cells and some blood proteins. The lymph eventually enters the bloods near the heart.

32. Collagen is

(a) fibrous protein

(b) globular protein

(c) lipid

(d) carbohydrate.

Answer and Explanation:

32. (a): Collagen is an insoluble fibrous protein found extensively in the connective tissue of skin, tendons and bone. Collagen accounts for over 30% of the total body protein of mammals. Globular proteins have compact rounded molecules and are usually water soluble. Lipid is a diverse group of organic compounds, that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Carbohydrates are compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

33. Which one of the following contains the largest quantity of extracellular material?

(a) striated muscle

(b) areolar tissue

(c) stratified epithelium

(d) myelinated nerve fibres

Answer and Explanation:

33. (b): In areolar tissue, there is more intercellular space, so largest quantity of extracellular material is present in this tissue. It contains all cell types and fibres of connective tissue. There is a thin layer of extracellular fluid in stratified epithelium whereas striated muscle is attached with tendons and there is very less amount of extracellular fluid in myelinated nerve fibre.

34. What is true about T-lymphocytes in mammals?

(a) there are three main types – cytotoxic T-cells, helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells

(b) these originate in lymphoid tissues

(c) they scavenge damaged cells and cellular debris

(d) these are produced in thyroid

Answer and Explanation:

34. (a): T-cells are the principal agents of cell mediated immunity. T-cells are derived from the bone marrow but migrate to the thymus to mature. Subpopulations of T- cells play different roles in the immune response and can be characterized by their surface antigens. There are three types of T-lymphocytes in mammals – cytotoxic T-cells, helper T-cells and suppressor T-cells. Cytotoxic T-cells destroy virus infected cells and tumor cells. Helper T-cells help in the antibody production by B-cells. Suppressor T- cells suppress the activity of B-cells. All T-cells are produced in thymus.

35. Mast cells of connective tissue contain

(a) vasopressin and relaxin

(b) heparin and histamine

(c) heparin and calcitonin

(d) serotonin and melanin.

Answer and Explanation:

35. (b): Mast cells are the large cells with densely granular cytoplasm that is found in connective tissues. Their granules contain histamine which is a vasodilator, heparin which is an anticoagulant and serotonin which acts as a mediator of inflammation and allergic reactions.. Vasopressin is a hormone secreted by posterior pituitary gland. Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by thyroid gland. Melanin is a pigment produced by specialized epidermal cells called melanocytes. Relaxin is a hormone produced by the corpus luteum and placenta during the terminal stages of pregnancy.

36. Four healthy people in their twenties got involved in injuries resulting in damage and death of few cells of the following. Which of the cells are least likely to be replaced by new cells?

(a) liver cells

(b) neurons

(c) malpighian layer of the skin

(d) osteocytes.

Answer and Explanation:

36. (b): Neurons are least likely to be replaced by new cells as they have least regeneration power. Osteocytes are the bone forming cells. Liver cells and Malpighian layer of the skin have regeneration power.

37. Which of the following substances, if introduced into the blood stream, would cause coagulation of blood at the site of its introduction?

(a) prothrombin

(b) fibrinogen

(c) thromboplastin

(d) heparin.

Answer and Explanation:

37. (c): Thromboplastin (tissue factor, factor III) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of damaged tissue cells that initiates the cascade of reactions leading to formation of a blood clot. It forms a complex with factor Vila in the presence of phospholipid and calcium ions; this complex converts factor X to Xa which in turn convert inactive prothrombin to thrombin during blood clotting. Further, thrombin breaks down fibrinogen to fibrin to form a meshwork of fibres called clot. Heparin is an anticoagulant present in blood.

38. Mast cells secrete

(a) haemoglobin

(b) hippurin

(c) myoglobin

(d) histamine

Answer and Explanation:

38. (d): Mast cells are granulated wandering cells that are found in connective tissue. Their granules contain histamine which is a vasodilator. It causes running nose, sneezing and itching; and narrows the airways in the lungs. Haemoglobin and myoglobin are the pigments present in the blood and muscles respectively.

39. Areolar connective tissue joins

(a) bones with bones

(b) fat body with muscles

(c) integument with muscles

(d) bones with muscles

Answer and Explanation:

39. (c): Areolar tissue is a loose connective tissue comprised of a semifluid ground substance containing several kinds of loosely arranged fibres. Its function is to attach the skin to the underlying tissues, to fill the spaces between various organs and thus holds them in place, and surrounds and supports the blood vessels. Tendons connect muscles with bone while ligaments connect bone with bone.

40. In which one of the following preparations are you likely to come across cell junctions most frequently?

(a) thrombocytes

(b) tendon

(c) hyaline cartilage

(d) ciliated epithelium.

Answer and Explanation:

40. (d): From the given four options cell junctions come across most frequently in the preparation of ciliated epithelium.

A cell junction is a structure within a tissue of a multicellular organism. Cell junctions are especially abundant in epithelial tissues. They consist of protein complexes and provide contact between neighbouring cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or they built up the paracellular barrier of epithelia and control the paracellular transport.

Ciliated epithelium is a region of epithelium consisting of columnar orcuboidal cells bearing hairlike appendages that are capable of beating rapidly. Ciliated epithelium performs the function of moving particles or fluid over the epithelial surface in such structures as the trachea, bronchial tubes, and nasal cavities.

It often occurs in the vicinity of mucus-secreting goblet cells. The other three (thrombocytes, tendon and hyaline cartilage) belongs to connective tissue. Connective tissue is widely distributed and has many functions including support, packing, defence and repair.

Thrombocytes or platelets aid the formation of blood clots by releasing various protein substances. Tendon attaches a muscle to a bone and hyaline cartilage consists largely of glycosaminoglycan, giving a shiny glass like appearance and gives flexibility and support at the joints.

41. A drop of each of the following is placed separately on four slides. Which of them will not coagulate?

(a) blood serum

(b) sample from the thoracic duct of lymphatic system

(c) whole blood from pulmonary vein

(d) blood plasma.

Answer and Explanation:

41. (a): Blood serum is blood plasma from which the fibrin and clotting factors have been removed by centrifugation or vigorous stirring, so that it cannot clot. Serum containing a specific antibody or antitoxin may be used in the treatment or prevention of certain infections. Such serum is generally derived from a nonhuman mammal (e.g. a horse).

42. Which one of the following pairs of structures distinguishes a nerve cell from other types of cell?

(a) vacuoles and fibres

(b) flagellum and medullary sheath

(c) nucleus and mitochondria

(d) perikaryon and dendrites.

Answer and Explanation:

42. (d): Neuron (nerve cell) is one of the basic functional units of the nervous system. Neuron is a cell specialized to transmit electrical nerve impulse and so carry information from one part of the body to another. Each neuron has an enlarged portion, the cell body (perikaryon), containing the nucleus; from the body extend several processes (dendrites) through which impulses enter from their branches.

A longer process, the nerve fibre, extends outward and carries impulses away from the cell body. This is normally unbranched except at the nerve ending. The point of contact of one neuron with another is known as a synapse.