Bonding 

An Ionic bond is a chemical linkage that happens between two atoms that have opposite charges[1]. Ionic bonding usually happens between metallic elements and non-metallic elements. The atom that has a negative charge takes from the atom that has a positive charge, in order to be made complete. This makes the bond, a very strong bond so that it’s not easily broken.

When those two elements bond together, a compound is formed.Example of an ionic bond: An ionic bond is the bond that is formed between sodium (Na+), which is an alkali metal and chlorine (Cl-) which is a non-metal[4], to form the compound, salt (NaCl).The Physical Properties of NaCl (salt)The ions are placed in a way that causes the compound to have a cubic or an ionic lattice structure. This ionic structure is what gives it so much stability because the ionic shape means that it cannot be broken very easily.

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The strength of the bond and its ionic structure means that it would require a lot of energy to break it apart. This energy would have to be active energy and this sort of energy is given by heat. Because of this, the compound has a high boiling at 1413 to 1465 degrees Celsius and a high melting point at 801 degrees Celsius[6].Sodium chloride can only conduct electricity when it is in a solution or when it is in the state of molten liquid because the electrons are then free to move around[9]. Whereas in a solid state, the ions are locked in place.A Covalent bond is a type of chemical bonding that occurs between two atoms that share electrons with each other[2].

This type of bonding usually happens between non-metallic elements. A covalent bond is also a strong bond because there’s a form of stability that each element receives, simply because the electron that is shared brings a completion. Example of an covalent bond: A covalent bond is the bond that is formed between many carbon atoms to form diamond and graphite.

The Physical Properties of Diamond:It has a very high melting point at 3550 degrees Celsius because a lot of energy is required to break all the covalent bonds between the carbon atoms[7].It is also said to have a high boiling point at 4830 degrees Celsius because of the energy that’s required to separate the strong bonds. However, the actual boiling point is unknown[7].The Physical Properties of Graphite:It has a very high melting point of about 3730 degrees Celsius[7] because a lot of (heat) energy is required to break the covalent bonds in its structure. However, its boiling point is unknown.Graphite is known to see a good electricity conductor because of the free atoms that are allowed to move around and attach themselves to new ones[7].

A metallic bond is one that exists when free electrons in the atom of a metal form a covalent bond with the protons in the atoms of a another metal.Examples of a metallic bond:Metallic bonding only happens with only metallic elements[3] such as magnesium, aluminium, silver etc[8]. However, it is not a strong bond because the electrons are delocalised, rendering them unstable[5].The Physical Properties of metallic bonds:Metals that have metallic bonds can easily change shape but the bonds will not be affected or broken[5].Atoms that are metallically bonded usually have high melting points and high boiling points as well because of the amount of energy that would be needed to break the bonds[10].Most metals that undergo metallic bonding are known to be good electrical conductors because of the delocalised deletions in the structure[10].