An Ionic bond is a chemical linkage that happens between two atoms that have opposite charges. Ionic bonding usually happens between metallic elements and non-metallic elements. The atom that has a negative charge takes from the atom that has a positive charge, in order to be made complete. This makes the bond, a very strong bond so that it’s not easily broken.
When those two elements bond together, a compound is formed.Example of an ionic bond: An ionic bond is the bond that is formed between sodium (Na+), which is an alkali metal and chlorine (Cl-) which is a non-metal, to form the compound, salt (NaCl).The Physical Properties of NaCl (salt)The ions are placed in a way that causes the compound to have a cubic or an ionic lattice structure. This ionic structure is what gives it so much stability because the ionic shape means that it cannot be broken very easily.
The strength of the bond and its ionic structure means that it would require a lot of energy to break it apart. This energy would have to be active energy and this sort of energy is given by heat. Because of this, the compound has a high boiling at 1413 to 1465 degrees Celsius and a high melting point at 801 degrees Celsius.Sodium chloride can only conduct electricity when it is in a solution or when it is in the state of molten liquid because the electrons are then free to move around. Whereas in a solid state, the ions are locked in place.A Covalent bond is a type of chemical bonding that occurs between two atoms that share electrons with each other.
This type of bonding usually happens between non-metallic elements. A covalent bond is also a strong bond because there’s a form of stability that each element receives, simply because the electron that is shared brings a completion. Example of an covalent bond: A covalent bond is the bond that is formed between many carbon atoms to form diamond and graphite.
The Physical Properties of Diamond:It has a very high melting point at 3550 degrees Celsius because a lot of energy is required to break all the covalent bonds between the carbon atoms.It is also said to have a high boiling point at 4830 degrees Celsius because of the energy that’s required to separate the strong bonds. However, the actual boiling point is unknown.The Physical Properties of Graphite:It has a very high melting point of about 3730 degrees Celsius because a lot of (heat) energy is required to break the covalent bonds in its structure. However, its boiling point is unknown.Graphite is known to see a good electricity conductor because of the free atoms that are allowed to move around and attach themselves to new ones.
A metallic bond is one that exists when free electrons in the atom of a metal form a covalent bond with the protons in the atoms of a another metal.Examples of a metallic bond:Metallic bonding only happens with only metallic elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silver etc. However, it is not a strong bond because the electrons are delocalised, rendering them unstable.The Physical Properties of metallic bonds:Metals that have metallic bonds can easily change shape but the bonds will not be affected or broken.Atoms that are metallically bonded usually have high melting points and high boiling points as well because of the amount of energy that would be needed to break the bonds.Most metals that undergo metallic bonding are known to be good electrical conductors because of the delocalised deletions in the structure.