Burbank1 Essay

Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Water Homeostasis 1.

Below are listed the four examples of disturbances in water homeostasis. Indicate if there is an increase (^), decrease (v), or no change (-) in volume and osmolarity. Give an example of each. Disturbance Volume Osmolarity Example Hypervolemia Hypovolemia Overhydration Dehydration 2. What are the four primary mechanisms to regulate fluid homeostasis? a. b. c.

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d. 3. Answer the following questions on antidiuretic hormone (ADH): a.

What is the major stimulus? _______________________ b. What is the direct effect of the hormone? _______________________ c.What effect will this have on plasma volume and osmolarity? _______________________ d. What effect will this have on urine volume and osmolarity? _______________________ 4. List three ways dehydration leads to increased thirst: a.

b. c. 5.

Answer the following questions on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. a. What enzyme is released from the kidney in response to decreased blood pressure? _______________________ b. What enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II? ______________ c. What are two effects of angiotensin II? d. How does aldosterone cause more sodium to be reabsorbed in the kidney? . As a result, what happens to blood volume and blood pressure? _______ 6.

a. A decrease in blood volume and blood pressure will lead to a/an ______________ in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). b. This will result in a decrease (v), and increase (^), or no change (-) in the following: 1.

______ Afferent arteriolar constriction 2. ______ Blood flow to the glomerulus 3. ______ Urine loss 4. ______ Renin release 7.

a. Diabetes insipidus is due to ______________________________. b. What will happen to the following: 1.

______ Urine output 2. ______ Plasma sodium 3. ______ Plasma osmolarity 4. ______ Thirst