Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Water Homeostasis 1. Below are listed the four examples of disturbances in water homeostasis. Indicate if there is an increase (^), decrease (v), or no change (-) in volume and osmolarity. Give an example of each. Disturbance Volume Osmolarity Example Hypervolemia Hypovolemia Overhydration Dehydration 2. What are the four primary mechanisms to regulate fluid homeostasis? a. b. c. d. 3. Answer the following questions on antidiuretic hormone (ADH): a. What is the major stimulus? _______________________ b. What is the direct effect of the hormone? _______________________ c.
What effect will this have on plasma volume and osmolarity? _______________________ d. What effect will this have on urine volume and osmolarity? _______________________ 4. List three ways dehydration leads to increased thirst: a. b. c. 5. Answer the following questions on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System. a. What enzyme is released from the kidney in response to decreased blood pressure? _______________________ b. What enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II? ______________ c. What are two effects of angiotensin II? d. How does aldosterone cause more sodium to be reabsorbed in the kidney? . As a result, what happens to blood volume and blood pressure? _______ 6. a. A decrease in blood volume and blood pressure will lead to a/an ______________ in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). b. This will result in a decrease (v), and increase (^), or no change (-) in the following: 1. ______ Afferent arteriolar constriction 2. ______ Blood flow to the glomerulus 3. ______ Urine loss 4. ______ Renin release 7. a. Diabetes insipidus is due to ______________________________. b. What will happen to the following: 1. ______ Urine output 2. ______ Plasma sodium 3. ______ Plasma osmolarity 4. ______ Thirst