CACHE Level 3 Diploma in Child Care and Education (DCCE-L3) External Assessment – Research Task 2 ‘It is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children’ Criteria 1 – Write an introduction which explains why it is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children. Criteria 2 – Explain a range of different approaches to planning which meet both the care and learning needs of all children. When planning to meet care and learning needs of children, there are many approaches which can be used such as, long, medium, short planning, PLOD’s, learning journey’s, the planning cycle and routines.
It’s important there’s a wide range of approaches in order to find which one best suit an individual child which is essential as all children have different needs and some will require different planning to others. ‘Children are unique individuals and you should be aware of how to work with a range of children with varying needs. ” Scott (2008 p2) When planning to meet the child’s care needs the practitioner needs to work with the parent to find out the child’s needs, these could be dietary or medical requirements and rest times so it similar to the child’s home routine.
A care plan is useful for planning, as it is detailed and identifies the individual child’s needs. A routine is a sequence of events, it is vital for meeting the children’s care needs. A routine plan can help children feel safe and secure within their environment. This links to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, under the level of ‘safety’ and ECM ‘safe and secure’. In 1970 Maslow said ‘Psychologically, children need to feel safe and secure before they can learn’. Puckett (2004,p207) http://www. lapetite. om/parent-resources/blog/2011/12/keeping-your-child-safe-lpa/ When planning to meet the care and learning needs of children, parent’s wishes must be taken into consideration for example; the diet of the child, this is linked to Every Child Matters (ECM) which was created in order to give any child with any background or any circumstances the support they deserve and need to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve through learning, make a positive contribution to society and achieve economic well-being.
Parents have a huge part to play as they may wish for their child to follow religious beliefs such as; Jewish meals must be Kosher; Islam meals must be Halal and so forth, also they may wish for their child to follow their belief which could be vegetarian, therefore when planning which involves foods its vital these points are taken into consideration. Parent’s views must be listened to and valued and it’s important when planning to meet children’s needs to take into consideration what festivals they follow.
As well as religious and personal dietary requirements there are also allergy requirements, these must be strictly followed in order for the child’s health and well-being. Could you have related it to your practice? The planning cycle is an effective method for planning to meet the care and learning needs of children, it gives practitioners the opportunity to review which will help them to make any improvements which is vital in order meet children’s needs as best as possible, therefore it’s a very accurate way of meeting needs.
According to Tassoni (2007 p108) “Planning for individual children’s interests means that they can learn more effectively as they are already interested in what they are doing’. A long term plan provides a structure which helps practitioners ensure that they cover all the various areas of development and learning and the principles in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) framework and the National Curriculum. Legal responsibilities, link to Education or Children’s Act The purpose of a long-term plan is to be more strategic about what you intend doing and how you will embed interests that you know are likely to occur, such as seasonal or cultural ones.. Scott (2008 p10) A medium term plan is based on the observations of children and considers relevant assessment such as Foundation Stage Profiles. What about the national curriculum? And the legal requirements of following the statutory curriculums?
A short term plan gives details of how activity is to be carried out, allows for spontaneous learning and flexibility and takes into consideration; differentiation, routines such as mealtimes and naptimes, intended learning outcomes and adult involvement. According to Child-Development-Guide. com (2007) “Some planning will be short-term – for a week or a day and will show how you will support each child’s learning and development. ” This is supported by Scott (2008 p10) ‘Short-term plans allow you to focus on more specific objectives which enables you to build on children’s current interests or identified needs. Relate to your practice. You could have discussed how activities originally plan can be adapted to meet the needs of the children. PLODS are Possible Lines of Development which are linked to the four principles of the EYFS; an unique child, positive relationships, enabling environments and children develop and learn in different ways and at different rates. In my placement due to it being a Catholic School children would often attend church, however not all children were Catholic, one child in my class was Muslim and would attend mosque instead.
According to Samuel, (2012 p1) a learning journey is ‘a collection of different documents collected by early years practitioners that provide a picture of a child’s development under the areas of learning identified in the EYFS’. http://www. earlylearninghq. org. uk/earlylearninghq-blog/what-is-a-learning-journey/ (03. 10. 12) The concept of a learning journey is to create a unique profile of the child, on their learning style and interests. This information can be incorporated using the child’s interests into their individual planning.
They also document and reflect the knowledge and ability of a child. In my placement, I worked with a child who had several learning needs, the teacher asked for me to help him with his letter formation. Upon learning that he liked trains, I then adapted the planning so that the child used handwriting worksheets with trains in order to engage him into the task whilst also enjoying it, this lead to the child improving. Bruner and Bandura believed that adults have a positive effect on the children’s learning and allow them to reach their goals with the help of adults.
Vygotsky believed that child learning should be ‘scaffolded’ however; Montessori believed that children should be independent and have control over their own learning. I believe that it depends on the adult if they have an effect on the child’s learning as the child may not have a good relationship with the adult and may not like them which would have a negative effect on their learning. “Bruner describes scaffolding as a temporary support structure parents build around a child’s quest to learn and comprehend new information, Bruner’s belief is that scaffolding can ultimately help a child to become a self-regulated, independent learner”. ttp://www. ehow. com/facts_7589113_bruners-theory-scaffolding. html (03. 10. 12) I agree with Vygotsky’s beliefs on scaffolding as with an adults help and supervision a child is more likely to achieve their goals, however I disagree with Montessori, that children should have full control over their learning, instead they should play and input into their learning and be taught independence through practitioners. “Never help a child with a task at which he feels he can succeed, it is always a goal of Montessori education in the classrooms to make the child independent and be able to do things for himself.
This is achieved by giving children opportunities. ” http://www. dailymontessori. com/montessori-theory/ (28. 09. 12) The Planning Cycle ‘It should be a continual process as children’s development is not static and because their interests and needs will change over time’. (Tassoni. P. 2007,p108) The Planning Cycle ‘It should be a continual process as children’s development is not static and because their interests and needs will change over time’. (Tassoni. P. 2007,p108)
Maslow theory constructed of a hierarchy of needs in order to motivate the behaviour of people; he believed people were interested in striving to satisfy their needs. He believed that when a person fulfilled the needs on one level, then they will want to continue to do the same on the next level until the highest level is reached. Now relate this back to the question. Criteria 3 – Explain in detail the professional skills needed to plan. Analyse why practitioners need these skills.
By being an effective team member it makes the team you are part of more skilful and knowledgeable, these are vital for meeting the needs of children as you are all working together in order for the best interests of the child. Also being an effective team member improves communication within the team and with this you call all share relevant information about a child and create a plan to best support the child. If you are a team member you are more likely to gain the trust of your colleagues and more responsibility.
Communication is an important skill for planning, without communication problems can arise, such as if a child requires medication and if colleagues don’t communicate the child might suffer by not being given the medication they need. There are many benefits from communicating with parents and staff such as, children are given consistent care, skills and ideas can be shared, information can be shared quickly, plans for children’s care and education are more effective, children’s welfare can be properly monitored and children’s needs and interests are identified. Communication with parents nd staff is vital for when planning as you can plan using the child’s interests and learning styles you’ve learn from communicating. The practitioner will benefit as they will know that each child’s needs need to be met, develops a shared approach with local schools and other agencies and gets to work and learn from a range of other professionals. The EYFS Statutory Framework (P10) states: ‘Close working between early year’s practitioners and parents is vital for the identification of children’s learning needs and to ensure a quick response to any area of particular difficulty.
Parents and families are central to a child’s well-being and practitioners should support this important relationship by sharing information and offering support to learning in the home. ’ https://www. education. gov. uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/eyfs_poster_0001207. pdf (03. 10. 12) In 1998, Gibbs depicted reflective practice in a cycle. The reflective cycle can be applied to any situation in the setting and the practitioner after thought and discussion can improve their practice, which will benefit the setting.
By being reflective it improves relationships and teamwork with parents and other practitioners. Other practitioners can identify where you could improve in practice which you may not have identified yourself. This is teamwork as your colleague will be honest with you in order to help you change your needs to help fit the child. By using reflective practice practitioners can improve their effectiveness in the classroom. Another benefit of reflective practice is respect for diversity in applying theory to classroom practice.
The benefits of developing reflective practice are that it identifies your strengths and weaknesses. This can also improve planning as practitioners can evaluate where they have gone wrong and do something different to make sure it doesn’t happen again and make improvements for next time, it will also make their planning more accurate, and this can improve outcomes for children. Another benefit is problem solving. It focuses on the positive side and this can be done by team meetings, focus groups, delegation of responsibility and carrying out research. It is important that the process of reflection is viewed as a positive process, rather than problems being seen as barriers to success. (Tassoni, P (2007). Childcare and Education Level 3) ‘Gibbs’ reflective cycle encourages you to think systematically about the phases of an experience or activity. ’ http://www. brookes. ac. uk/services/upgrade/a-z/reflective_gibbs. html (10/10/12) ‘Gibbs’ reflective cycle encourages you to think systematically about the phases of an experience or activity. ’ http://www. brookes. ac. uk/services/upgrade/a-z/reflective_gibbs. html (10/10/12)
Organisation is a must for planning, the practitioner must incorporate any support staff into the planning as using them will give children more support and a practitioner can give children more variety of tasks. Also a practitioner must be aware of all the resources they will need for their planning, and make sure they are available. ‘Practitioners must consider the individual needs, interests, and stage of development of each child in their care, and must use this information to plan a challenging and enjoyable experience for each child in all of the areas of learning and development’. (EYFS Statutory Framework,p6)
It’s vital that planning is not done at short notice as it needs time in order to consist of accuracy, also being aware of any events must be taken into consideration such as events in schools, such as assemblies as events take up time which can affect the planning for a class. “Multi-agency working brings together practitioners from different sectors and professions to provide an integrated way of working to support children, young people and families. It is a way of working that ensures children and young people who need additional support have exactly the right professionals needed to support them. ” http://www. ducation. gov. uk/childrenandyoungpeople/strategy/integratedworking/a0069013/multi-agency-working (10. 10. 12) The Common Assessment Framework (CAF) works with children who require extra support offering them help and deciding how to meet those needs. CAF works with the Education Department to help produce advice and guidance to help promote CAF. We also need to be able to communicate effectively with other agencies, children and parents to initiate necessary action if extra support is needed. Having that support from the multi-agency teams can improve children’s behaviour and improve social inclusion.
The children will also benefit as they will have more one on one attention in the setting. Multi- agency working will help practitioners to plan for a child as they will have the support and knowledge of other professionals who also work with the child. When planning for a child, a practitioner in a educational setting may not understand a child’s behaviour, development or learning and by working with other agencies these could be explained for example, a doctor or nurse my diagnose the child with ADHD or a social worker may be aware of problems in a home which could be the reason for a child’s behaviour.
By acquiring these answers the practitioners will then be able to plan for the child in a better and more appropriate way. “Observations help us assess children’s progress; we can find out about the specific care and learning needs of each child. We can then plan next steps in children’s development and learning”. (EYFS, Effective Planning,p3) Observations provide vital information for planning as we can learn a child’s likes and dislikes and then incorporate them into their planning.
In my placement I had to carry out 3 observations on a child, I was noticed the child found counting difficult. Therefore, I decided to think of a way for the child to interact with counting and find it more enjoyable. At the time the children were reading ‘The Three Little Pigs’ for Literacy and I knew he liked pigs, this lead to me researching counting worksheets with pigs on, these proved to be beneficial to him and helped him to count easier, he found numbered pigs easier to count with rather than a number square grid usually provided in class.
Without observation, overall planning would simply be based on what we felt was important, fun or interesting (or all three) but it might not necessarily meet the needs of the children in our care. (EYFS, Effective Planning,p1) In my placement’s I have been part of providing excellent service to meeting children’s care needs, I have dealt with minor first aid accidents such as nosebleeds, and bumps and grazes. I have also assisted children with the use of their inhaler on a regular basis, and applied nappy rash creams to babies.
Criteria 4 – Analyse how effective planning supports practitioners in meeting children’s care and learning needs. Effective planning has many positive outcomes for children as it keeps both the practitioner and child on track. There are many negative outcomes for children if effective planning doesn’t take place, such as it will cause the child to be frustrated and their learning outcomes won’t be met along with their individual needs.
There will also be no connections to the prior learning, along with disorganisation and you need to be organised for effective planning to take place, a practitioner must be aware of all the resources they will need for their planning, and make sure they are available. It’s important for practitioners to allow reasonable time for tasks, otherwise not enough work will be done or the children won’t have enough to do. “Effective practice in the early years requires committed, enthusiastic and reflective practitioners with a breadth and depth of knowledge, skills and understanding. Primary National Strategy (Keep p3) “Effective Practice is about ensuring that all children get optimum benefit from their experiences in the EYFS. This apparently simple outcome can only be achieved when adults work together to get to know the children so that they can support their play, development and learning. ” http://earlyyearsmatters. co. uk/index. php/effective-practice/ (17. 10. 12) “Effective practitioners use their own learning to improve their work with young children and their families in ways which are sensitive, positive and non-judgemental. Primary National Strategy (Keep p3) often created using a lot of the parents input as they are the children’s first carer and educator. Criteria 5 – Explain in detail why it is important to plan for the provision of an enabling environment which meets all children’s care and learning needs. This includes understanding that children will have different dispositions with different ways of playing and learning, and understanding what additional support a child may need from time to time. ’ Scott (2008, p8)
An enabling environment is an indoor and outdoor environment which provides; high quality resources, space, stability and displays. It also acts as an emotional environment providing warmth and recognising that every child is unique. ‘Young children should be outdoors as much as indoors and need a well-designed, well-organised integrated indoor-outdoor environment, preferably with indoors and outdoors available simultaneously’ (The Shared Vision & Values for Outdoor Play in the Early Years, 2004)
The (EYFS) explains that ‘being outdoors has a positive impact on children’s sense of well-being and helps all aspects of children’s development’ Early Years Foundation Stage, Department for Education and Skills, (2007), Principles into Practice Card 3. 3 Maria Montessori was an Italian physician, her approach is based on providing children with the freedom to learn in an environment designed to enable them to lead their own learning. The Montessori approach firmly believes in free flow between the indoors and outdoors, with the outdoor space being prepared for the children to encourage exploration and independent activity.
Steiner was a philosopher who developed a different style of educating children. The Steiner approach is based on providing a suitable environment, with natural and sensory resources to encourage exploration and creativity. (Link to Forest Schools) Vygotsky was a psychologist who gave a lecture regarding ‘The problem of the environment’ he believed that the human brain, unlike an animal’s brain, has the capacity to alter the environment for their own purposes.
He believed the social and cultural environments in which children were raised in played a key role in the child’s learning. I believe that practitioners should provide an enabling environment using both the indoors and outdoors environment as the outdoor environment offers children freedom to explore, use their senses and be physically active, it also offers them the chance to explore using the natural world i. e. the weather and seasons and being outdoors also has a positive impact on children’s sense of well-being.
The indoor environment can act as a ‘second home’ for children providing them with space to eat, sleep, rest and take part in activities and it provides a safe, secure yet challenging environment for children. Criteria 6 – Explain how child development theories are used in practice when planning to support children’s care needs. Criteria 7 – Analyse how child development theories support learning and play. Criteria 8 – Analyse the importance of play in children’s learning, giving reasons why play should be included in learning.
Criteria 9 – Make a conclusion which evaluates the importance of planning to meet the care and learning needs of all children. Long-term plans outline the programme for the centre. This means you are prepared for interests that will most likely occur throughout the year or that you can predict are very likely to occur, and you will know who is doing what and when’. Scott (2008 p10) Bibliography and References HNC Early Education and Childcare