Title:? Catch-22Author:? Joseph HellerSignificant details about the author:Joseph Heller was born May 1, 1923 in Brooklyn, New York. He flew 60 combat missions as a bombardierin World War II before finishing his studies at Columbia and Oxford and working as an advertisingcopywriter. His satirical novel Catch-22(1961), based on his wartime experiences, was one of the mostsignificant works of postwar protest literature and a huge critical and popular success. Heller also becamean anti-war activist, as a result of the Korean and Vietnam wars.Year of Publication:? 1961Information about the period (literary, historical, philosophical, etc.):Catch-22 was written during the postmodern era and carries absurdist ideas. It also has very stronganti-war, anti-government sentiments due to the Korean and Vietnam wars which were occuring aroundthe time the novel was written. The influence of the 1950s on Catch-22 is evident through Heller’sextensive use of anachronism. Though the novel is ostensibly set in World War II, Heller intentionallyincluded anachronisms like loyalty oaths and computers (IBM machines) to situate the novel in thecontext of the 1950s. Many of the characters are based on or connected to individuals from the 1950s, aswell. After publication in 1961, Catch-22 became very popular among teenagers at the time. Catch-22seemed to embody the feelings that young people had toward the Vietnam War. A common joke was thatevery student who went off to college at the time took along a copy of Catch-22.Describe the setting(s) and explain the significance:The novel is set during World War II, from 1942 to 1944. Most of the events in the book occur while thefictional 256th Squadron is based on the island of Pianosa, in the Mediterranean Sea, west of Italy. Theisland is described in the novel as, “ too small to “accommodate all the actions described.” The significanceof this setting is that the novel’s protagonist, Yossarian, is a man who tries to avoid combat but is forcedinto it in order to return home. The setting of World War II is the perfect time period for Heller’scommentary on war and the bureaucracy.Point of view and other notable structural, literary, and stylistic techniques:The story is told through third person omniscient point of view. Many events in the book are repeatedlydescribed from differing points of view, so the reader learns more about each event from each iteration,with the new information often completing a joke, the setup of which was told several chapterspreviously. The narrative’s events are out of sequence, but events are referred to as if the reader isalready familiar with them so that the reader must ultimately piece together a timeline of events. Helleremploys circular reasoning and paradox to justify the actions and opinions of certain characters. Thenovel also can be separated into six sections that tell different parts of time in the war and is structuredby free association which almost makes it seem as if there is no structure.Name of eachsignificantcharacterRelationship to othercharactersKey traits /adjectives to describePurpose / function in story(round or flat?)Captain JohnYossarian28-year-old Captainand B-25 bombardierin the 256thBombardmentSquadron of theArmy Air Corps,stationed on thesmall island ofPianosa off the Italianmainland duringWorld War II.? Outsider? Thought to beinsane? Tries to avoidcombat? Main goal is to stayalive? Concerned aboutothers? Morally conflicted? WittyThe main protagonist in thenovel. Yossarian is a roundcharacter who at the beginningof the war joined for the causebut after the death of his friend,Snowden, saw it in a differentlight. He thought that everyonewas out to kill him, even thegood guys. Yossarian highlightsthe hypocrisy of war.ChaplainTappmanAn Anabaptistminister who servesas the squad’schaplain. He isworried constantlyabout his wife andchildren back homeand is bulliedrelentlessly by hisatheist assistant.? Kinds? Gentle? Sensitive? Tormented? WorrisomeTappman is a naive Anabaptistminister from Kenosha,Wisconsin, who is tormentedthroughout the novel by hisrude, manipulative atheistassistant, Corporal Whitcomb.Easily intimidated by the crueltyof others, the Chaplain is a kind,gentle, and sensitive man whoworries constantly about hiswife and children at home. A flatcharacter.ColonelCathcartA full colonel, ChuckCathcart is a groupcommander at theU.S. Army Air Corpsbase in Pianosa andis obsessed withbecoming a general.As such, he doeswhatever it takes toplease his superiors,in particular, byrepeatedly raisingthe number ofmissions the menhave to fly to? Obsessive? Hard working? Selfish? NaiveObsessed with become a generalso he’s always raising thenumber of missions his menmust make, and everytimeYossarian gets close to reachingthe number he raises it again,keeping Yossarian from cominghome. A flat character.complete a tour ofduty beyond thatnormally required byother outfits.MiloMinderbinderFirst Lieutenant MiloMinderbinder is themess officer at theU.S. Army Air Corpsbase and. He has noallegiance to anycountry, person orprinciple unless itpays him and profit isgenerated.? Obsessive? Business-like? Capitalistic? Heartless? A satireMilo is a satire of the modernbusinessman, and beyond that isthe living representation ofcapitalism, as he has noallegiance to any country, personor principle unless it pays himand profit is generated. Miloeven begins contractingmissions for the Germans,fighting on both sides in thebattle at Orvieto and bombinghis own squadron. A flatcharacter.LieutenantNatelyHe lives in a tent withMcWatt next toHavermeyer’s tent.His most notablecontribution in thebook is hisinvolvement with awhore, “Nately’sWhore,” who is forthe most partuninterested in him? Optimistic? “Gentleman”? Believer in theAmerican DreamNately’s family originallyenlisted him to serve in the AirCorps, believing the war wouldbe over by the time he finishedhis training and that he wouldmingle with “gentlemen.”Therefore, Nately could gain thepride of enlisting withoutactually having to fight. Instead,he mingled with Yossarian andDunbar, and was sent overseas.He is often filled with Americanoptimism, shown by his desire tomarry his whore and send herkid sister to a respected collegein the United States. A flatcharacter.Secondary characters (brief identifications):Snowden- Snowden is a radio-gunner, a member of Yossarian’s crew; when their aircraft is hit byanti-aircraft fire and Snowden is wounded, Yossarian attempts to treat his visible wounds, but misses aterrible, fatal, wound hidden by his clothing. Snowden’s death acts as the catalyst for the change inYossarian’s mentality.Doc Daneeka- Dr. Dan Daneeka is the squadron flight surgeon and a friend of the novel’s protagonist,Yossarian. Doc Daneeka’s main motivation is for his own welfare, whether that be making money orprotecting his own life.Captain Aardvaark- Captain Aardvaark (called Aarfy) is the navigator in Yossarian’s B-25 bomber (butonly when Yossarian is flying in the lead ship – hence Aarfy’s sporadic appearances in the air in thenovel). He is oblivious to incoming flak, repeatedly gets lost on missions, and always smokes a pipe. Apoint of hypocrisy in the novel because throughout he talks about treating women with respect and notusing whores but ends up raping and murdering a young woman at the end.General Scheisskopf- Scheisskopf is the training unit commander for Yossarian and Clevinger, and hetakes a particular dislike to Clevinger. Even though Clevinger is just as serious about parades asScheisskopf, and his ideas help the squadron win multiple parades.Plus many other military personnel that would take too long to name all of them!Turning points, resolutions, climaxes – include page #s) and explain their significance to the entirework? Climax: Following the deaths of Dobbs and Nately in the mission to La Spezia (Chapter 35),Yossarian refuses to fly any more missions. He finally comes out in open, peaceful, revolt againsthis commanding officers. Yossarian can’t take any more missions after watching all of his squaddie.? Resolution: On hearing of Orr’s escape to Sweden (Chapter 42), Yossarian finally decides to desert.Yossarian takes a decisive step in his quest for personal freedom, sanity, and salvation by trying toescape to Sweden. This is the resolve to Yossarian’s conflict to stay alive, this is his chance out ofthe war.Major conflicts (in abstract terms, with resolutions)? Yossarian’s internal conflict is that he wants more than anything to stay alive during the war. Hisprimary goal is to avoid death. At all costs. This is his internal conflict. After watching Snowdendie in his own arms, Yossarian strongly believes that the instinct to stay alive is the mostimportant human quality. His internal conflict actually causes external conflict. The decisions hehas to make while fighting in war are affected by his internal conflict. The conflict arises from notonly his survival instinct but for his true selflessness and care for others. He goes to the extremelength of disobeying orders to stay alive.? Yossarian wants to stop flying missions in his efforts to stay alive. However, Colonel Catchcartcontinues to raise the number of missions each man must fly in order to be grounded. Thiscreates a conflict between the Colonel and Yossarian.Write and explain the major themes of the work? Absurdity: In this book, it all circles back to the illogical logic of the “Catch-22,” which leadsYossarian and the other soldiers to doing things that someone in his or her right mind probablywouldn’t even imagine. Heller drives his point home by extending this metaphor throughout thestory’s pages, exaggerating certain traits or situations to the point of ridicule. Ultimately, thetwisted logic in Catch-22 reveals the absurd and often incoherent nature of modern warfare.? Hypocrisy: The logic known as Catch-22 is basically just endlessly creative rationalization. It cantake contradictory statements and reconcile them better than any politician. By taking a statementand inverting it, Catch-22 always defeats those who try to reason through it, through circularreasoning.? Power: Heller goes to great lengths to point out the incompetence, pettiness, and corruptionwithin the bureaucratic ranks of the military in Catch-22. Its officers are often blindly selfish,heartless, indecisive, deeply insecure, and wildly ambitious. They have no compassion for humanlife or any sort of morality. They answer only to those with more money and more power.Accountability is often in question. The bureaucrats have no problem cutting corrupt deals withtroublesome individuals to get rid of them, or sometimes just discreetly eliminating them.According to Heller, such a bureaucracy is the product of a modern capitalistic society—onewhere money talks and power corrupts.Write at least five vocabulary words from the text (with p#) and define them.Expurgate: edit by omitting or modifying parts considered indelicate. (pg.4)Unctuous: unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating. (pg.25)Prolix: tediously or prolonged tending to speak or write at length. (pg.17)Truculent: defiantly aggressive. (pg.155)Gauche: lacking social polish. (pg.220)Cite and quote five significant passages (withp#, use ellipses to abbreviate)Explain the significance of each passage or how it relates tothe work as a whole.Instead of saying “this shows…”, try“underscores / highlights / exemplifies / epitomizes /substantiates / embodies…”“To everyone he knew he wrote that he wasgoing on a very dangerous mission. “Theyasked for volunteers. It’s very dangerous,but someone has to do it. I’ll write you theinstant I get back.” And he had not writtenanyone since.” (chapter 1, paragraph 10)The introduction to Yossarian’s madness and absurd train ofthought. This is the first moment that the reader realizes thatthe protagonist is not a totally sane man. This quoteexemplifies the absurd theme that is present throughout thenovel.“The Texan turned out to be good-natured,generous, and likable. In three days no onecould stand him.” (chapter 1, paragraph 17)This quote reveals the irrationality of the men; they don’tlike the Texan, despite his likeable qualities. It is also thefirst glimpse of the hypocrisy theme that runsthroughout the novel. Everyone should like the Texandue to his pleasant demeanor but he is distinctly hatedinstead.“There was only one catch and that was This quote explains the logic of a Catch-22: a dilemma orCatch-22, which specified that a concern forone’s own safety in the face of dangers thatwere real and immediate was the process ofa rational mind. Orr was crazy and could begrounded. All he had to do was ask; and assoon as he did, he would no longer be crazyand would have to fly more missions. Orrwould be crazy to fly more missions andsane if he didn’t, but if he was sane he had tofly them. If he flew them he was crazy anddidn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to hewas sane and had to.” (chapter 5, paragraph64)difficult circumstance from which there is no escapebecause of mutually conflicting or dependent conditions.The significance of this quote is that the protagonist,Yossarian, is described by everyone else in the novel asinsane but he thinks he is actually the most sane personon Pianosa which in itself is a Catch-22 because only acrazy person would think they are the only sane ones inthe world.“Yossarian…it was an odious, alien,distasteful name, a name that just did notinspire confidence. It was not at all like suchclean, crisp, honest, American names asCathcart, Peckem and Dreedle.” (chapter 21,paragraph 6)Cathcart reveals his jingoism by distrusting anythingthat doesn’t immediately seem American. I believe thisalso underscores the hypocrisy theme in the novel,Cathcart is supposed to be fighting against ethniccleansing but is prejudiced against Yossarian becauseof his last name even though he is just as American asevery other American soldier.Catch-22 did not exist, he was positive ofthat, but it made no difference. What didmatter was that everyone thought it existed,and that was much worse, for there was noobject or text to ridicule or refute, to accuse,criticize, attack, amend, hate, revile, spit at,rip to shreds, trample upon or burn up.(chapter 39, paragraph 49)It is nonsensical to say something does not exist but thendoes. However, Yossarian has a point here. Only to theextent that people believe in the twisted logic ofCatch-22 does it actually exist and manifest its strangeconsequences on everyone. The tragic truth is that if thecollective did not believe in Catch-22, it would not exist.Write at least three questions or topics for discussion.1.) How is insanity defined in Catch-22? What characteristics do “crazy” characters have? Is madnessthe norm or an exception during wartime?2.) Define the logic of Catch-22. What part does this logic play in the story being told?3.) Why is Yossarian so obsessed with death? Is he correct in assuming everyone is out to kill him?