Category 4vehicles includes motorcycles that haveno CO2 emissions and can travel at least 50km between charges. The grant considered forthe motorcycles covers 20% of the purchase price for these vehicles, up to amaximum of GBP 1,500. This category of vehicles includes BMW C evolution,Energica Ego, Energica Eva, Scutum Silence S02, Torrot Muvi, Vmoto 100, Vmoto120, and Zero Motorcycles (all models).
Category 5vehicles includes mopeds that have no CO2 emissions and can travel at least 30kmbetween charges. The grant considered for the motorcycles covers 20% ofthe purchase price for these vehicles, up to a maximum of GBP 1,500. Thiscategory of vehicles includes Torrot Muvi City, UGBESTe-City, and Vmoto Super Soco TS1200R.
Category 5 vehicles includes vans that have CO2 emissions of lessthan 75g/km and can travel at least 16km without any CO2 emissions. Thegrant considered for the motorcycles covers 20% of the purchase price for thesevehicles, up to a maximum of GBP 8,000. The government also provides tax incentives in the form of reduced taxation forcompany cars. Government also plans to spendmore than GBP 600 million in the period of 2015-20 to support ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) manufacturing andadoption with the objective of 100% new ZEV sales by 2040.
There are also incentives in the forms of freeparking and access to bus lanes 19. The HRSInfrastructure Grants Scheme funds projects via two streams 43: • Stream 1 (Upgrades): In this stream, up to 100% of the eligible costs for 6-8 HRSs isprovided to upgrade those HRSs from demonstration projects to commercial HRSs.The budget for this stream is about GBP 2 million. • Stream 2(New stations): in this stream, up to 60% of eligible costs is provided for 4-7 HRSs with a budget of aboutGBP 3.5 million.
The applicant has to match the remaining cost from othersources.The UK government also provides incentives fordevelopment of three types of EV charging facilities as explained in thefollowing 45.· Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme (EVHS): This scheme provides funding for the installationof charging points at houses all over the UK. The funding covers up to 75% ofthe cost of installing and is capped at GBP 500. 45 46. · WorkplaceCharging Scheme (WCS): Capped at GBP 300 for each socket, this program providessubsidies upfront cost for the installation of EV charging points with a limitof 20 charging points across all sites for each application 47· On-streetResidential Chargepoint Scheme (ORCS): Local authorities using this funding schemecan benefit from 75% subsidy for the cost of installing a charging point and aspecific parking space of an on-street residential chargepoints.GBP7,500 is the maximum amount of funding per charging point that Officefor Low Emission Vehicles provides 48.
Table18 shows the number of charging points in the UK from 2012 to 2016. Table 18. Number of chargingpoints in the UK (2012-2016) 19 Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Publicly accessible slow chargers 1 2804 5515 7431 8716 10736 Publicly accessible fast charger s2 36 176 481 1121 1523 Total 2840 5691 7912 9837 12259 As of March2017, there are currently 13 operational hydrogenrefueling stations in the UK, while some arereserved for University or research purposes 49. Two types of FCVs is available for purchase in the UK (Hyundai ix35 FCV and Toyota Mirai). Toyota UK said that 28 Mirai vehicles had been registered in the country as of March2017 since its launch in 2016 49.
Table 19 shows BEV and PHEV stock in the UK from 2012to 2016.Table 19. BEV and PHEVstock in the UK (2012-2016) 19 year Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands) 2012 5.
59 (82% BEV, 18% PHEV) 2013 9.34 (78% BEV, 22% PHEV) 2014 24.08 (58% BEV, 42% PHEV) 2015 48.
51 (43% BEV, 578% PHEV) 2016 86.42(36% BEV, 74% PHEV) UK’s EVcumulative sales target by 2020 is 0.5 million vehicles 22.The UK has no target for the number ofFCVs sold 50.NorwayNorwayalongside Denmark are the two countries in the world with the highest new carpurchase taxes 9. Generally,incentives in Norway for supporting the deployment of EVs is strongerthan incentives in countries such as France, Japan,and the USA 9 which led to Norwayhaving the highest electric car penetration among all countries 19.
FCV purchases inNorway are exempt from purchase tax (whichcan be as high as 100 % for petrol cars) and also Zero value added tax (25 %) 51.FCV owners can also enjoy low annual road-tax (10 % of normal), free publicparking, access to bus / taxi-lanes and free passing through toll-roads 51.The same incentives are also available for BEVs 19.However, the Government and regional politicians have started to reduce thebenefits for BEVs and warned that thesesupports would be gradually phased out 51.Development of HRSs in Norway has benefited from government support. The HyNorproject in Norway was a joint industry initiative to demonstrate the real-lifeimplementation of a hydrogen energy infrastructure across Norway 52. Thisproject was a public-private partnership 53.
Norwayalso provides public funding for deployment of fast-charging stations every 50km (on average) on main roads and at the same time contributes to deploymentincentives for public chargers 19.As of October 2017, there are 6 HRSs in Norway 54. Table20 shows the number of accessible slow and fastchargers in Norway.Table 20. Number of accessiblechargers in Norway 19 Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Publicly accessible slow chargers 3688 4511 5185 5289 7105 1Slow chargers include AC Level 2 chargers (> 3.7 kW and ? 22 kW) 192Fast chargers include AC 43 kW chargers, DC chargers, Tesla Superchargers andinductive chargers 19