Change and Instability in Area and Production of Rice in Bangladesh

Thepopulation of Bangladesh is increasing rapidly. Rapid population growth, alongwith unplanned urbanization, causes the cultivable land area to be used fornon-agricultural purpose.

As a result, the cultivable area is reducedsignificantly (Akther et al., 2016). Rice is the main foodfor most of the people in Asia, almost half of world’s population live on rice(Bhuiyan, 1992). Al most 2.4 billion people depends on rice and provides morethan 20% of their daily calorie intake (Lampe, 1995).

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The annual growth rate for riceconsumption in the Asia-Pacific Region over a period of 45 years (1950 to 1995)has kept pace with the demand, more through yield increase rather than areaexpansion (Papademetriou, 2000). Within 2030 our world population willincreased 8.27 billion and  we can ensureenough rice for the increasing population (Kubo and Purevdorj, 2004).With anincreasing population leading to an increase in demand, the main drivers whichdetermine rice production need to be identified (Milovanovic and Smutka, 2017).Rice production has increased because of the use of modern technology and theprice of rice is increasing due to rising agriculture wage rates and declineavailability of cultivable land (Ahmed, 2004). Inrecent years the production of rice has increased in South Asian Countries butin other countries of the region yields have stagnated (Mutert and Fairhurst, 2002). Bangladesh has huge population ascompared to many others country and it occupies 8th position overthe world because of over population.

With the increase of population ourcultivated land in decreasing day by day. About 75% country’spopulation is engaged in agricultural sector (BSGDMA, 2007). Rice is oneof the dominant crops of the agrarian economy of Bangladesh and it reflected inthe high per capita rice consumption in this country (Shelley et al, 2016). In Bangladesh rice production most rain fed rice isfaced problem because of drought and Diurnal temperaturerange (Rahman etal.

, 2017). Average yields per hectare and totalrice production increased significantly, leading to a substantial increase inthe supply of rice in the domestic market which resulted in significantreductions in rice prices and the average production cost of rice per acre interms of input use varied across the three rice crops as well as across thevarious stages of rice cultivation (Talukder and Chile,2014). Despite pressurefrom overpopulation, the country has reached self-sufficiency in riceproduction (Shelley et al., 2016). Production of rice has increased because ofthe development of high-yielding varieties and use of high level of fertilizerin last four decades (Prasadet al., 2016).

Toachieve better economy and fulfill the demand of increased population, it isneeded to increase the production of rice. Rice production and area should beincreased and yield rate should be stable. A good number of researches are donein this sector. However, these research works are not sufficient to improve thesector. Therefore, this study is investigated to know the change andinstability of rice production in Bangladesh.