Chapter 4 Wlan Technologies And Standards Computer Science Essay

IEEE 802.11 is the major Wireless Local Area Network criterion. This chapter presents an overview of the IEEE 802.11 criterion.

Wireless Local Area Networks ( WLANs ) are progressively at manus in corporate and residential indoor environments. WLAN is non a individual wireless engineering, several different engineerings fall into the class called WLAN. This survey enterprises to foreground peculiarly on the bing industry criterion for IEEE 802.11b as the representative illustration of the WLAN household of engineerings.

RF has turn out to be the effectual engineering for largest division of today ‘s WLANs. Radio signals are able to convey in all paths with a distance runing from a few metres to a figure of kilometres. These characteristics provide an highly realistic in fortunes at a topographic point of broad or long-range coverage which is necessary although they befall gluey whilst the signal ‘s extension desires to be restricted. Because of the unmanageable finish of wireless signals, this makes this medium to be vulnerable unseen interception and use.

Each and every assailable wireless transition be able to be examined by agencies of extensively bing wireless equipment by any individual positioned within the array of the sender ; though it is important to do a note of that amplifiers every bit good as specific aerial be able to utilize entirely by the side of the receiving system location on the manner to heighten the effective array of wireless signals, hence fundamentally intriguing the sender power is non satisfactory to curtail the broadcast of signals.

Spread Spectrum

Standard RF transmittal exposures have been claimed because of the promotion of spread spectrum communicating engineering. Dissimilar narrowband systems that broadcast a dominant signal traveling on a lone frequence, spread-spectrum systems broadcast a little power signal with a broad assortment of frequences. The signal is widening as per the pre-established restraints or theoretical accounts that as well-known by the receiving system as a consequence to ease recovery of the signal. These transmittal methods enable extra opposition to resound and intervention and are non as much of vulnerable to thronging and informal interception. In the instance of WLANs, the hardware should be witting of the signal dispersion parametric quantities so as to have a spread-spectrum signal ; as a consequence these parametric quantities are pre-programmed into the hardware chipsets employed on the manner to piece these merchandises.

Though all the above chipset be recommended to be enhanced acute on unconnected WLAN AP and workstation hardware, it is to be predictable so as the tools every bit good as techniques are constructing up for brand usage of these pre-programmed receiving systems for the map of intercept spread-spectrum WLAN communications. Assorted such tools are liberally gettable on the Internet, and accordingly none of the spread spectrum engineerings is required that is to be reflected to be adequate to protect a WLAN.

A few signal-spreading schemes have existed with advancement though the systems that are conquest in the WLAN field are:

1. Frequency Hoping Spread Spectrum ( FHSS )

2. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ( DSSS ) and

3. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM )

In 802.11 WLANs, FHSS and DSSS are placed with the alone spread-spectrum engineerings. The perceptual experience of distributing spectral usage all the manner through frequence hopping is rather easy to understand ; DSSS is chief back uping component on the mathematical rule of whirl and endow with a greater information throughput and a higher unsusceptibility to interference than FHSS. OFDM is a multi-carrier wideband transition strategy that provides changeless better information throughput every bit good as it is greatly farther resistant on the manner to interference than the preceding programs. 802.11n launched OFDM+MIMO, which prolong to do usage of the unchanged 2.4 GHz frequence set every bit good as cardinal transition program of OFDM, excepting attention deficit disorder techniques for utilizing multiple senders and receiving systems while taking into account temporal and spacial word picture of the RF environment. This in consequence amplify the presented bandwidth by agencies of a pattern known as “ channel bonding ” ( uniting multiple next channels into one big channel ) to extra amplify scope.

3.1.2 WLAN System Architecture

The WLAN protocol discussed in this research attempt is based on the IEEE 802.11 criterion. The standard defines a average entree control ( MAC ) sub bed and three physical ( PHY ) beds. Despite the different wireless engineerings, all WLAN systems are normally used to transport IP datagram. The end of the IEEE 802.11 criterion is to depict a WLAN that delivers services normally found in wired webs. The IEEE 802.11 architecture consists of several constituents that work together to supply a Wireless LAN ( WLAN ) connectivity that is crystalline to the upper beds. The Basic Service Set ( BSS ) is the basic edifice block of an 802.11 WLAN. A station ( STA ) is the constituent that connects to the radio medium. The station may be nomadic, portable, or stationary.

A station provides the following WLAN services: hallmark, privateness, and bringing of the informations ( MAC service informations unit ) . The BSS, shown in Figure 2-13, is a set of Stationss that communicate with one another. When all the Stationss in the BSS can pass on straight with each other and there is no connexion to a wired web, the BSS is called an Independent BSS ( IBSS ) . An IBSS is besides known as ad-hoc web, which is typically a ephemeral web with little figure of Stationss in direct communicating scope.

3.2 802.11 Standards


The U.S. Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ) in 1985 semen to a determination to let go of the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical ( ISM ) bands, working at 902 to 928MHz, 2.4 to 2.483GHz, and 5.725 to 5.875GHz, which is wholly intended for unaccredited public use. This committee satisfied demands of commercial communicating and in add-on sparked the betterment of WLAN engineering. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) established the 802.11 WLAN standard [ 1 ] in 1997 in an attempt to modulate radio LAN merchandises developing the ISM set. This criterion has since been adopted by the International Organization for Standardization / International Electro proficient Commission ( ISO/IEC ) .

The Physical ( PHY ) and Data Link beds of the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) Basic mention theoretical account are addressed by the IEEE 802.11. The legacy criterion projected three ( reciprocally incompatible ) executions intended for the physical bed: IR pulse transition, RF signaling utilizing FHSS, and RF signaling utilizing DSSS. The physical medium for informations transmittal is the chief apprehensible unsimilarity among the WLAN and the customary wired LAN.

The IEEE 802.11 criterion has several cardinal amendments. Merchandises compliant to the 802.11a, B and g amendments are in common usage today, with an increasing figure of merchandises based on the “ Draft 2.0 ” release of 802.11n. Cardinal specifications for each of these amendments can be found in Table 1.

Previously, the primary booming commercial 802.11 WLAN merchandises were submissive by agencies of the 802.11b criterion. Both 802.11a and b amendments were in fact approved at the similar clip, nevertheless since 802.11b was non every bit much of complex as 802.11a, merchandises submissive through the 802.11b criterion fleetly materialized whilst merchandises beneath 802.11a simply acquire in touch with the market in 2002. Since that clip, the 802.11g amendment which made usage of the same 2.4 GHz set as 802.11b, nevertheless carried more quickly and extra vigorous connexions every bit good as greater scope, has come to rule the market.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ) is responsible for developing the wireless engineering criterions to be used by wireless LANs. These criterions pertain to the 802 radio criterions including 802.11, the first 1 that was developed, and several fluctuations of it.

Each criterion though developed for radio LANs serves a different intent for the LANs, due in portion to hackers, every bit good as others who might dispute its security for the intent of beef uping their ain endeavor security. As exposures, or holes, are found they become public cognition and the IEEE returns to update the criterion.

The criterions ( versions ) listed below are the most common 1s, a list of which can be found in any wireless LAN literature or in IEEE published informations

3.2 IEEE 802.11 Task Groups/Amendments


Basic criterion 802.11 WLANs are based on IR conveyance were in no manner commercially put into pattern and the RF-based versions experienced low transmittal velocity ( 2 Mbps ) . The IEEE in a piece started up legion undertaking groups on the manner to look into a assortment of ascents to the original 802.11 core criterion.

802.11a Amendment

An unaccredited 5.0 GHz frequence set explored by Task Group A, by agencies of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) , working to achieve throughputs up to 54 Mbps. The 802.11a extension [ 2 ] was fulfilled in 1999 and in 2002 sellers set in gesture releasing merchandises biddable to this extension. Because of the dissimilar operating set and transition, the 802.11a criterion is non rearward companionable or interoperable among the 802.11b criterion. Numerous sellers are marketing dual-band, multi-standard ( 802.11a and 802.11b/g ) APs. The 802.11a is at present licensed for usage in North America and most European states ; though commercial usage of 802.11a has traditionally been comparatively restricted.


Task Group B explored DSSS engineering to hike informations rates in the original 2.4 GHz set. The 802.11b extension [ 3 ] , published in September 1999, delivers raw information rates up to 11 Mbps, which gave informations rate para with the popular 10 Mbps “ 10Base ” wired LAN systems of the twenty-four hours. The bulk of WLAN systems in the market today follow the 802.11b criterion and it is accepted throughout North America, Europe and Asia.


Task Group G permitted the expansion of the new extension to the 802.11 criterion in November 2001 ; the attendant amendment was approved in 2003. The 802.11g operates at 2.4 GHz with compulsory compatibility to 802.11b and uses the OFDM multicarrier transition strategy to accomplish a maximal information rate of 54 Mbps.

802.11n Amendment

As with 802.11b and g, the 802.11n criterion will run at 2.4 GHz with compulsory compatibility to 802.11b/g and utilizations OFDM with MIMO techniques to accomplish a maximal projected information rate of 248 Mbps. As described earlier in this papers, OFDM+MIMO utilize the same basic transition as 802.11g. However it utilizes multiple transceivers with advanced techniques to counterbalance for both the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the RF channel every bit good as the pattern of “ channel adhering ” in order to greatly increase the scope and natural information rate. The 802.11n is still in the bill of exchange phase with an expected concluding blessing in 2010, nevertheless many “ Pre-N ” or “ Draft-N ” merchandises have already begun emerging on the market. Consumers are cautioned when buying such merchandises because, as draft-based merchandises, they are non capable to the same interoperability proving as full-standard compliant merchandises. As such, they are non guaranteed to be compatible with, and may non be upgradeable.

IEEE 802.11

The 802.11 operation manners

There are two operation manners defined in IEEE 802.11: Infrastructure Mode and Ad Hoc Mode.

Infrastructure manner

Figure 1: Infrastructure manner in WLAN

Ad-Hoc Mode

Figure 2: Ad-hoc manner

The 802.11 physical bed

The 802.11 Datalink bed

IEEE 802.11b

Enhancements to the physical bed